The Big Winner on November 8 Could Be... Cannabis! 

Cannabulletin: Your source for Aggregated Cannabis News View this email in your browser ( 11/02/2016

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** The Big Winner on November 8 Could Be... Marijuana (

With pot on the ballot in nine states, the big winner in next Tuesday's election could be America's legal cannabis industry. By 2020, legal market sales are expected to surpass $22 billion. And for states struggling with budget shortfalls, that extra revenue would be clearly welcome.

Voters in five states — Arizona, California, Maine, Massachusetts and Nevada — will decide whether to legalize recreational marijuana for adults. Medical marijuana is on the ballot in Arkansas, Florida, Montana, and North Dakota.

Supporters believe the marijuana measures will pass in California and Florida, and possibly several other states, because America's attitude about pot has changed significantly in the last few years.

"Legalization of cannabis is one of the greatest business opportunities of our time."

"It's well established that the majority of Americans now believe that the responsible use of marijuana by adults should not be a criminal offense," said Paul Armentano, deputy director of NORML ( , the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws.

Two national surveys released in mid-October confirm that, with the Pew Research Center ( revealing that 57 percent of U.S. adults say the use of marijuana should be made legal — while 60 percent were opposed a decade ago.

The latest Gallup Poll ( showed that support for legalizing marijuana is at 60 percent, the highest ever recorded in this survey. After Colorado and Washington became the first states to allow the recreational use of pot, in 2013, support for legalization reached a majority for the first time ( .

Tax revenue generated from legal sales exceeds expectations

It is far too soon to assess the overall impact to society in states where weed has been legalized. A new report ( from the Drug Policy Alliance concludes that it's been "so far, so good" in Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, Washington and Washington, D.C. They found that total marijuana arrests are down, young people smoking pot did not increase significantly, and traffic fatality rates have remained stable, so far.

But there is hard data on the total sales and tax revenue generated by this budding business.

Nationally, legal pot sales grew like a weed last year to $5.7 billion, up from $4.6 billion in 2014, according to a recent report ( from the ArcView Market Research and New Frontier. Recreational sales grew from $374 million in 2014 to $1.2 billion by the end of 2015.

The report projects strong sales growth this year, with retail sales hitting $7.1 billion, up about 26 percent from 2015. By 2020, the report says, legal market sales are expected to surpass $22 billion.

"Legalization of cannabis is one of the greatest business opportunities of our time and it's still early enough to see huge growth," noted Troy Dayton, CEO of The ArcView Group, in the report.

The legal cannabis industry has also created tens of thousands of jobs across the country.

"We're seeing a massive transformation from an illicit economy worth tens of billions of dollars into a legal economy that will probably be worth even more than that," said Ethan Nadelmann, executive director of the Drug Policy Alliance ( , a group that supports the legalization of marijuana.

"Legalizing marijuana, taxing and regulating it, is not going to solve a state's budget problems. It's not a panacea, but it definitely makes a significant contribution," he said.

A look at the numbers

Tax revenues collected in Colorado, Washington, and Oregon have all exceeded initial estimates. * Colorado's legal pot sales of $996 million generated $121 million in combined sales tax and excise tax revenue last year and created 18,000 new jobs, according to the Marijuana Policy Group ( (MPG). * Marijuana tax revenue in Colorado was three times larger than alcohol and 14 percent larger than casino revenue, the report noted. * MPG projects that marijuana tax revenue in Colorado will eclipse cigarette tax dollars by 2020. * Washington's recreational marijuana industry brought in $427 million in sales and excise tax revenue on sales of $1.1 billion since 2014, according ( . * Oregon's Department of Revenue ( reported sales of more than $160 million so far this year, which generated more than $40 million in sales taxes.

But the extra income is just one drop in a very large bucket, according to Joe Henchman, vice president for legal and state projects at the Tax Foundation ( .

"It's certainly quite a bit of revenue," Henchman told NBC News. "It's enough to pay for some extra police or some extra teachers, but you're just not going to be able to replace many of your other taxes with that revenue."

Proponents of cannabis initiatives often point to the tax benefits of a legal marketplace. They're asking voters to tax them, something most businesses would never do. Henchman said the industry views this as a way to "legitimize it" and make the idea of legal sales acceptable to most people.

California here we come?

All eyes are on the Golden State, as voters there are asked to approve Proposition 64: Adult Use of Marijuana Act. Medical marijuana is already legal there. This would allow people to grow some weed at home and give municipalities the authority to allow recreational pot stores.

This election could be a tipping point that makes it impossible for Congress to keep ignoring the issue.

Based on the latest polling, Prop 64 is expected to pass.

Cannabis advocates believe a win in California on November 8 could open the floodgates for other states and Congress to legalize the purchase and recreational use of marijuana by adults.

Gallup noted, "If recreational marijuana use becomes legal in California this year, many other states will likely follow, because the Golden State often sets political trends for the rest of the U.S."

Taylor West, deputy director of the National Cannabis Industry Association ( , believes this election will be "a tipping point" that makes it impossible for Congress to keep ignoring the issue. "If all nine initiatives were to pass, we'd have approximately 62 percent of the US population living in a state where medical or adult-use cannabis access is legal. That's huge," she said.

It's still an all-cash business

Even so, West does not expect Congress to legalize marijuana any time soon. She hopes lawmakers will pass legislation to allow the legal cannabis industry to access the nation's banking system. That's extremely difficult or impossible for these businesses to do right now because marijuana remains illegal at the federal level.

Running an all-cash business creates serious security problems for cannabis retail stores and dispensaries, including the constant threat of being robbed. It also makes it harder to for these legal businesses to pay their employees and the taxes they owe.

The Marijuana Business Access to Banking Act ( was introduced in July of 2013 by two democrats, U.S. Reps. Ed Perlmutter of Colorado and Denny Heck of Washington.

"We've just got to get these businesses away from being all cash," Heck said. "It's more than ridiculous, it's not safe."

The Perlmutter/Heck bill updates federal banking rules to resolve conflicts between federal and state laws. It would simply enable banks and credit unions to provide services to legitimate marijuana-related businesses in states that have legalized pot, without fear of sanctions from federal regulators.

Despite growing bi-partisan support, the chairman of the House Financial Services Committee has refused to let the bill come up for a vote, Heck told NBC News.

"Most of my colleagues understand that the safe thing to do is to allow these businesses to have access to banking services so they're not all cash," Heck said.

"We're going to get wind in our sails as a consequence of this election, but whether it will be enough remains to be seen."

** Costs of Growing Cannabis at Home vs. Buying Bud at a Dispensary (

Cannabis traditionally has been produced on a small scale to evade the law for decades. As a result, many people have connections to someone who has dabbled in cultivation. With the legal market, however, consumers now can purchase an array of products without considering cultivation, much like grocery store produce. Grocery stores are supplied by farms that take care of the cultivation for us and grow a product at a reasonable price. This is, for the most part, also true for cannabis, but let’s take a look at the numbers and see how the finances compare between growing your own supply and buying it from a medical dispensary or an adult use retail store.

** How Much Does Cannabis Cost at a Store or Dispensary?

The ability to walk into a store and purchase any number of cannabis products is a luxury that should not be taken for granted. Flowers, concentrates ( , andedibles ( that range in potency, flavor, effect, and smell fill the shelves of your average shop. Many of the products require expensive machinery and a high level of skill to produce. The diversity of flower and quality genetics is something most consumers could not dream of 20 years ago. However, these products are subject to high taxes and regulations that make packaging and distribution expensive.

** How Much Does It Cost to Grow Your Own Cannabis?

Growing your own product has its own set of benefits and drawbacks. Taking cultivation into your own hands gives you complete control of the products used to grow your cannabis, giving you full knowledge of the process and a better understanding of the plant. It also allows you to explore growing techniques ( , genetics ( , harvest times ( , and curing strategies ( . This all requires time and effort, but sharing the fruits of your labor with your friends and family is unparalleled.

However, at the same time, it’s also important to realize the difficulties that can arise from growing your own cannabis. Pests ( , mold, and other diseases ( can rapidly sabotage a grow and leave you with a bad crop. Additionally, if you’re completely new to growing, you could make some costly mistakes as you learn through trial and error how to raise healthy crops with strong yields.

If you’re curious about the approximate costs of growing your own cannabis at home, keep in mind that the pricing varies between growing indoors vs. outdoors, as well as the size of the space in which you’re choosing to grow.

** Growing Cannabis Indoors

For our indoor cannabis grow ( cost estimates, the space we calculated costs for is a 6 ft by 6 ft grow space. We’re using soil as our growing medium, and only one room will be used for both vegetative growth and for flowering. Also, let’s assume we’re in a temperate climate where the use of A/C will not be necessary, which will save us some energy costs.

Not included in the price estimates is the cannabis plants themselves. For this exercise, we’ll use six clones ( to save space and reduce our vegetative growth time. A single clone can cost between $10-$30, but higher-quality clones can be more expensive. Our plants will spend around a month in vegetative growth and around 8-10 weeks flowering.

With a 1000-watt bulb, ideally you could produce up to a gram per watt. Realistically, as an enthusiast starting out, you might find yourself anywhere between that and a half gram per watt. This assumes you avoid pests and disease, and you feed your plants ( to keep them healthy. You should set aside an hour or more a day to observe and work in the garden to keep your plants happy.

** Small Closet Grow

If a 6 ft x 6 ft space is unrealistic, you can consider growing in a much smaller space using a grow tent kit. The grow tents dimensions start at 2x2x5 ft and get more expensive the larger you go. You can buy a 2’x2’x5’ kit for under $1,000 that includes everything you’ll need to grow cannabis besides the soil and plants themselves. A kit will allow you to grow two to four plants in one to three gallon pots. In a space this size, you would most likely use a 400-600 watt light and have a return ratio similar to the larger 6 ft x 6 ft room.

** Growing Cannabis Outdoors

Growing cannabis outdoors ( can be a very simple startup process. The largest concern is the climate in which you live. It needs to be sunny and dry enough to promote growth and prevent rot. Additionally, it needs to stay sunny and warm long enough into the fall to allow the plants to finish flowering. Growing in a greenhouse ( can help with the temperature and moisture-related issues with cultivation, but climate still dictates your ability to grow outdoors.For this estimate, we will assume you are growing in a climate where the plants can be outside from the start of the season (July) to the end of the season (October). Again, we will use clones to start (which are not included in our cost estimates).

High yields of quality product can be produced outdoors. A plant grown in a 50-gallon pot should net you between 1-2 lbs of flower. You’ll need to consider the cost of the time you will put into your garden; an hour a day on average should allow you to take care of your plants. Some days will require nearly no time while others will require more. Also, the property required to grow outdoor cannabis is a factor. Most people growing outside do so on large properties for security reasons and odor issues.

Keep in mind that many of these costs will be lower in simpler, smaller gardens. Growing a plant or two in your yard can cost very little, especially if you already own much of the equipment from growing other types of plants and produce. Of course, many of these startup materials can be re-used for your next harvest as well.

Reflecting on the costs between purchasing cannabis and growing your own in addition to the benefits that each method has to offer might have you clearly leaning to one side or stuck in a stalemate. Cannabis is not cheap or easy to grow, and chances are you will get higher quality, more diverse products at the local shop. However, if you want to explore producing your own crop and if it feels less like labor and more like a hobby, then perhaps a personal garden is the way to go.

** As California Preps For Recreational Cannabis, Local Cities Scramble to Pass Temporary Restrictions (

As many of you already know by now, the upcoming election on November 8^th will have a major impact on the direction of the country’s cannabis industry, especially in the state of California. Next week, local voters will gather to decide yes or no on California’s Proposition 64 (http://https// , an initiative that would legalize recreational marijuana across the largest US state.

At first glance, the proposition might seem like a clearcut YES vote, but a fair amount of opposition has come from cannabis growers and companies (http://https// already operating in the state, many of whom feel that Prop 64 will drive their smaller businesses out in favor of an eventual corporate cannabis takeover (http://https// . Despite this concern, recent polls still show the legislation will likely pass, and local municipalities are vigilantly preparing for recreational cannabis to take effect.

Cities such as San Jose have been considering taking actions that would prohibit growing, processing, and selling weed for commercial purposes, hoping to buy themselves time to figure out how to properly regulate the impending recreational market. The City Council is currently thinking about adopting an urgency ordinance that would prohibit commercial use of non-medical marijuana in the city, which would effectively ban commercial cultivating, processing, manufacturing, distributing, testing, and selling of recreational cannabis.

Another Bay Area-based city, Berkeley, recently approved a policy that will ban recreational cannabis businesses from opening until the city crafts their own regulatory system and licensing process. Other local municipalities, such as Palo Alto, Campbell, Foster City, Hayward, Davis, and Martinez, are pushing for similar temporary bans or regulations before the November 8 vote. The argument for these regulations seems to revolve around the concern that recreational cannabis will lead to “pot shops on every corner”, a reasoning that is considered silly by many.

"This is a complete and utter waste of time,” James Anthony, an Oakland-based attorney who specializes in pot regulation, said to Mercury News ( . “They don’t have the power to change the fact that marijuana will be legal on Nov. 9. They’re making it look like Prop. 64 is a scary thing that allows pot shops on every corner — and it’s the complete opposite.”

Even if Prop. 64 passes, these recreational cannabis companies will still need to obtain a local license before a state one can even be granted, making the over-saturation of pot shops in local cities highly unlikely. But these cities still fear recreational pot passing without a proper framework and a sound foundation, which has led them to take matters into their own hands and set restrictions prior to the big vote next week.


As election day gets closer, all sorts of political activity is ramping up. And the Catholic Church is joining the fray as well. The Boston Archdiocese just gave $850,000 to an anti-marijuana campaign called the Campaign for a Safe and Healthy Massachusetts. The group is working to defeat a bill to legalize recreational cannabis in the state.

Catholic Church Donation Details

On November 8, Massachusetts will vote on Question 4, an initiative that would make recreational pot legal. And so far there’s been a lot of campaigning on both sides of the issue.

But the Boston Archdiocese of the Catholic Church has become the biggest opponent of the bill (at least when it comes to financial contributions).

The church’s $850,000 donation is by far the biggest one received by the Campaign for a Safe and Healthy Massachusetts. In fact, that single donation gave the group a 50 percent boost in funding.

“It reflects that the archdiocese holds the matter among its highest priorities,” Archdiocese spokesperson Terrence Donilon told sources ( in Boston. “It’s a recognition that, if passed, the law would have significantly detrimental impacts on our parishes, our ministries.”

Opponents of Question 4 have said that legalizing cannabis would create new problems. In particular, they’ve said that cannabis is a gateway drug ( that could make the opioid epidemic ( even worse. Opponents have also said that legal pot would be dangerous to children.

But proponents of the new bill said those arguments don’t hold water. Pro-legalization advocates stated that Question 4 would create a safer, better-regulated cannabis market. And it would generate new taxes for the state as well.

The National Scene

The Catholic Church isn’t the only church to speak out against upcoming marijuana votes. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, better known as the Mormon Church, has also spoken up against legalization. Leaders recently sent letters to members in Arizona, California, and Nevada.

“We urge Church members to let their voices be heard in opposition to the legalization of recreational marijuana use,” the letters ( said.

Cannabis legalization is a hot issue this election cycle. Massachusetts, Arizona, California, Nevada and Maine are deciding whether or not to legalize recreational pot ( . And Arkansas, Florida, Montana, and North Dakota are voting on medical cannabis initiatives. (

Despite outspoken critics like the Catholic and Mormon churches, support for legalization is at an all-time high. In Massachusetts, 49% of voters said they support Question 4 while 42% stated that they don’t. And at the national level, 54% of all Americans said they support legalization ( .

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Cannabulletin: Australia Legalizes Medical Marijuana Cultivation 👍🌱

Cannabulletin: Your source for Aggregated Cannabis News View this email in your browser ( 10/31/2016

** Welcome to Cannabulletin

Cannabis News that Informs, Intrigues & Captivates.

** Australia legalizes medical marijuana cultivation (

Australia has allowed “fit and proper” individuals and entities to cultivate medicinal cannabis crops under strict government license and guidelines in an effort to substitute imports with “domestic supply.”

The commencement of the Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act 2016 on October 30, 2016, marks a milestone for Australia's medicinal cannabis prospects. The new regulations ( allow for the licensing of cannabis cultivation and the production of cannabis and cannabis resins for medicinal and scientific purposes.

Until now, it has been difficult for patients to access medicinal cannabis products from overseas sources,” Federal Health Minister Sussan Ley said in a statement released on Sunday.

“These new laws change that situation by providing for a domestic supply of medicinal cannabis products that are not readily available for import.”

However, while pharmaceuticals will gain an advantage from the new law, recreational pot smokers are left disappointed, as consuming marijuana still remains a criminal activity.

“I want to emphasize that the changes to the Narcotic Drugs Act do not decriminalize cannabis for recreational use,” Ley said.

Under the act, those companies ready to grow their weed plants must comply with state and territory drug legislations which would allow companies to classify their harvest in accordance with the Therapeutic Goods Administration.

READ MORE: People pot power: Aussie state gives go-ahead to medicinal cannabis trial (

To hold a license for cannabis production, business will need to pass “strict fit and proper persons requirements and other legislative tests relating to security.” It is left up to individual states and territories to award licenses and outline the types of cannabis plants that can be cultivated and the quantities that can be produced.

** Will Seattle cannabis tourism take a hit if other states legalize weed? (

Logan Bowers, owner of Seattle’s #Hashtag ( pot store, is as adamant about pot legalization as a person can be. Since pot became legal in Washington state in 2014, he’s enjoyed the societal — and financial – benefits of legal weed.

But he admits feeling a tad conflicted when he sees the growing number of marijuana legalization initiatives in the country. His heart soars but his wallet trembles.

How do we know marijuana isn’t helpful if we can’t test it? (

“All of us in the legal and regulated industry recognize that the war on drugs has failed and that legalization nationwide is the right thing,” Bowers said. “If it is legal in every state, tourism won’t be quite the draw.”

On this November’s ballot are nine legalization efforts ( in other states including California’s Proposition 64 (,MarijuanaLegalization?utmsource=General+List&utmcampaign=68428ea870-EMAILCAMPAIGN20161031&utmmedium=email&utmterm=0_12d0feba2a-68428ea870-110906985(2016)) . Four more states have legalization measures for 2017 followed by another three in 2018.

Cannabis store owners across Seattle agree that pot tourism has become a big business in many of the city’s 56 cannabis stores, from tourists visiting Bower’s store on Stone Way to the cruise ship passengers congregating at Herban Legends ( on Bell Street.

Since July 1 of this year, the state has seen $500 million in pot sales with $95 million in taxes paid. In the two years that pot has been legal, the Washington State Liquor and Cannabis Board ( has tracked $1.23 billion in marijuana sales with $345 million in state taxes — although officials say it is impossible to know how much of that revenue was tourist-based.

Pot store owners suspect the windfall is substantial.

“We definitely see tourists, especially in the summertime when the cruise ships are in port,” said Bowers, who is president of the Cannabis Organization of Retail Establishments (CORE). “At Hashtag in Fremont, we might see folks from 35 different states and 10 different countries in one night.”

Marijuana is getting Canadians banned from the US for life (

To Bowers and other retailers, the solution to a potential drop in tourism is two-fold: Keep Washington’s weed at a “destination” quality that is as respected as local beer, wine, and seafood. And secondly, push to change state law to allow Amsterdam-style smoking cafés ( as part of the retail industry.

He said the current law presents a quandary when an out-of-towner comes into his shop.

“They’ll buy a joint or buy a vape cartridge and they’ll say, ‘Oh where can I go to try this product?’ And we’ll say, ‘Well, nowhere.’”

This is what legalization 2.0 should look like, he said: A system of limited-use cafes to keep tourism strong and the neighborhoods happy. He said Colorado, for example, has “pot friendly” hotels so tourists are not smoking in parks and alleys.

“I think it makes the most sense for Seattle and Washington to have an Amsterdam model,” he said. “A place where people can go and purchase a small amount and consume on site.”

** Cannabis might give you superior night vision (

Conventional wisdom suggests that eating carrots, or other vegetables rich in vitamin A, can improve your night vision. While it's true that vitamin A is important for healthy eyesight, the idea that devouring carrots can actually improve your vision is anunsubstantiated myth ( .

But researchers have discovered another plant that might actually improve your night vision: cannabis. That's right, your bloodshot eyes might not look very healthy, but there's now evidence that getting stoned might enhance your sight in the dark, according to a new study published in the journal eLife ( .

The principal psychoactive constituent in marijuana, THC, produces the sensation of being stoned by binding to receptors in the brain. One of these receptors is known as CB1, and it just so happens that the human retina contains a high concentration of CB1 receptors. Scientists have therefore suspected that cannabis has an effect on the eyes, but this connection has not been well researched.

To study it, a team of researchers applied synthetic cannabinoids to the eye tissue of tadpoles of the African clawed toad. Tadpoles might seem like an unusual choice for this research, but like humans, their eyes also contain CB1 receptors. Readings of the tadpoles' light-sensitive retinal ganglion cells — captured thanks to attached electrodes — revealed heightened activity in the presence of the cannabinoids.

Researchers then placed the tadpoles in a petri dish that was dotted with black marks on the outside that were shaped to look like the shadows of predators. When the lights were turned down, tadpoles that were given the cannabinoids were far more effective at avoiding the fearsome marks.

The study's authors guessed that the improved vision had something to do with the fact that the preoccupied CB1 receptors caused a decrease in the number of negatively charged chloride ions that traveled inside the neurons. This should cause the membranes to become hyperpolarized, which means more electrical activity.

Of course, before you toke up expecting to reap the potential night vision benefits, it might be best to wait until this research can be duplicated in animals closer related to humans than tadpoles. Certainly, as the medicinal properties of cannabis continue to be researched, those studies will come.


The evolution of marijuana over the past few decades is undeniable. Today, there are more super-strains available for medical and recreational consumers than ever before. So how did cannabis become so potent? It turns out; there’s a few sides to the story.

Once upon a time, cannabis typically weighed in with a THC content of about 10-12 percent. Now, designer strains ( regularly top 20 percent, with some reaching as high as 28-30 percent THC.

But even though the tale is that cannabis is stronger now than it was in, say, the 1970s ( , few know exactly how strains of cannabis have been developed ( that are stronger than ever before.

** Cannabis Science

Thanks to states that have legalized adult use of cannabis, barriers to researching ( the plant are crumbling left and right. And that’s a good thing because it allows growers, consumers, and regulatory agencies alike to know more about how cannabis works and what it’s potency is.

For example, in 2015 a lab in Colorado analyzed some 600 samples of medical and recreationally sold marijuana. Their tests found ( that potency has risen three times what it was 25 years ago.

That’s because as pot becomes an increasingly legal and professional operation, growers can access the resources they need to engineer strains of marijuana that are far more potent.

When it’s illegal to grow and sell cannabis, you have to take extreme measures to keep a grow house hidden and discrete.

Legalization has brought growing out of the basement and into the public eye. And for the first time, growers can lawfully and openly create the optimal conditions for growing super-strong herb.

Also, when it’s legal to study, grow, and sell cannabis, locally bred strains tend to thrive. Those locally bred strains are optimized for local growing conditions. This makes them stronger than plants that were produced internationally.

Cannabis Technology

But remember, the growth in potency ( has been happening for a few decades. By contrast, wide-scale legalization is only a recent phenomenon. Colorado has the oldest legal pot policy, and it’s only four years old.

That’s why there’s another side to the story of how cannabis became so potent.

As technology advances, it becomes more affordable and accessible. More people can take advantage of it than ever before. The same goes for cannabis growers.

Advancements in hydroponics ( systems and artificial lighting technologies, even small things like the humble compact fluorescent light bulb ( , make growing potent pot easier than ever. You don’t need an industrial grow operation to cultivate killer cannabis these days.

** It’s The Cannabis Market

Still, there’s one undeniable factor ( that has fueled the explosion in potent cannabis strains. Consumer demand. On both the legal and illegal side of things, consumer demand ultimately leads to more potent cannabis.

Cannabis prohibition encourages producers to increase profit by reducing the size and volume of their shipments. Concentrating THC ( in plants makes sense.

On the legal side, however, consumers are looking for products that pack in more of the desired effects. In this case, edibles ( and other concentrates that mean a consumer has to buy and smoke less cannabis to get the same results are sought after.

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Do Podesta’s Hacked Emails Reveal Clinton’s Cannabis Policy? 🔨

Cannabulletin: Your source for Aggregated Cannabis News View this email in your browser ( 10/27/2016

** Welcome to Cannabulletin

Cannabis News that Informs, Intrigues & Captivates.

** Do Podesta’s Hacked Emails Reveal Clinton’s Cannabis Policy? (

Political reporters have been rummaging through the Russian-hacked ( emails of John Podesta, Hillary Clinton’s campaign director, looking for evidence of dastardly acts and questionable ethics. Wikileaks ( has been posting the Podesta files a batch at a time for the past few days in order to either extend Julian Assange’s time in the spotlight or maximize the damage to the Clinton campaign, depending on your preferred theory.

So far, Podesta and Clinton seem to be surviving this unkind exposure fairly well. A smoking gun has yet to emerge. The Podesta files are, for the most part, a massive record of a political campaign in the midst of a multiyear grind. Aides and advisers suggest tweaks to the candidate’s message. They swap suggestions about going after Bernie Sanders’s weak points. They bicker about proper email etiquette.

Here at Leafly, we were curious about the place of cannabis in all these messages. Is there insight to be gained about Hillary Clinton’s plans for legalization, or lack of same, somewhere within the Podesta Files?

There is.

A thorough search of the files turns up a few hints here and there. An overall picture emerges of a candidate and a campaign that do not take the issue of cannabis legalization seriously. Which means that once Clinton is elected, cannabis advocates will have some serious work to do.

** How to win over millennials?

Podesta’s emails reveal a consistent concern about millennial voters and how to woo them away from the sweet, sweet authenticity and progressive beliefs of Bernie Sanders.

In July 2015, Teddy Goff ( , the Clinton campaign’s digital media director and 31-year-old “friendly neighborhood millennial” (as Goff good-naturedly referred to himself), sent a note about how Clinton’s speaking affect and reaction to attacks plays with younger voters.

“I think we are at risk of failing a kind of smell test,” Goff wrote, “even if our talking points are all spot on, if we don’t figure out how to project legitimacy and authenticity and a little bit of (credible, non-forced) cool factor to this crowd.”

Almost exactly one month later, Hillary Clinton wrote campaign manager Robby Mook, following a conversation Clinton had with US Rep. Earl Blumenauer of Oregon, the leading cannabis legalization advocate on Capitol Hill:

“[Blumenauer] wants to support me on policy and fundraising specifically by helping on how to talk about marijuana and the need for fair taxes and banking and on animal welfare concerns which he says are the sleeper issues that will turn out young people and motivate voters,” Clinton wrote. “He has a lot of ideas about what I could do which would be the first time these interests are organized for a presidential campaign. And several states—NV, OH, and FL—will have marijuana initiatives on the ballot in 2016.”

Clinton ended the note by asking Mook to “please follow up and let me know what develops.” Mook agreed to do so. “He’s a super delegate,” he wrote, “so we definitely want his endorsement!”

Blumenauer eventually endorsed Clinton—five months later—but there’s no indication she ever took him up on the offer to help her understand and talk about cannabis issues.

That’s a shame. Apparently nobody on Clinton’s campaign team was aware of the work done by the Pew Research Center ( , which for the past six years has tracked the eye-popping spike in support for cannabis legalization among millennials. An overwhelming 71 percent of millennials now support legalization. That’s not medical. That’s adult use.

Millennials believe strongly in legalization. It’s one of the few issues that actually drives them to the polls. Whether it’s Colorado in 2012 or Florida in 2014, legalization measures trigger a spike in young voter turnout. The data ( doesn’t lie. And yet Clinton’s advisers either ignored the trend or knew something about their candidate’s reticence to address the subject in a legitimate and authentic way.

** Allies in Boston are against legalization

One particularly enlightening email exchange came on Sept. 29, 2015, when Clinton’s policy team sent her a brief prior to an event with Boston Mayor Marty Walsh. At the time, Walsh was a popular political figure in the Northeast. He hadn’t yet committed to a presidential candidate, and his endorsement was coveted by both Clinton and Sanders. “Hillary Clinton could certainly use support from a popular urban mayor with close ties to labor and the recovery community,” the Boston Globe reported ( earlier that week.

In the brief, Clinton’s staff emphasized the “areas of overlap between [Walsh’s] priorities and YOUR substance abuse initiative.”

Here’s one of the keys to Hillary Clinton’s discomfort with cannabis legalization: She sees it largely as a substance-abuse issue.

That becomes painfully clear through the briefing, as Clinton’s staff ties Massachusetts prescription drug and heroin epidemic into a discussion of Mayor Marty Walsh’s opposition to cannabis legalization. “The issue is expected to be put to a state referendum in Massachusetts in 2016,” her staff wrote, “and Walsh has said he will lead a crusade against it.” Walsh, who is very open about his status as a recovering alcoholic, views cannabis as a gateway drug, despite decades of scientific evidence debunking that theory.

The briefing says nothing—not a word—about cannabis legalization. Her aides do prepare her to answer a hostile question about the 1980s drug-prevention program DARE being “widely seen as a failure.”

Clinton’s answer? “We cannot give up on preventive education and early intervention,” says the briefing paper. Besides, “DARE itself has been undergoing an overhaul in recent years to update its curriculum according to evidence-based models. We cannot give up on prevention.”

To anyone, of any generation, who’s even the slightest bit familiar with the debacle of DARE ( —and who also supports fact-based drug abuse prevention—that is a depressing answer. Any public official who mentions DARE in 2016 is profoundly out of touch with the current conversation about drug abuse prevention, racial inequities, criminal justice reform, mass incarceration, the opioid epidemic, and cannabis legalization.

** Cannabis may enhance night vision (

25 years ago, pharmacologist M. E. West of the University of the West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica, noted that local fisherman who smoke cannabis or drink rum made with the leaves and stems of the plant had “an uncanny ability to see in the dark,” which enabled them to navigate their boats through coral reefs. “It was impossible to believe that anyone could navigate a boat without compass and without light in such treacherous surroundings,” he wrote ( after accompanying the crew of a fishing boat one dark night, “[but] I was then convinced that the man who had taken the rum extract of cannabis had far better night vision than I had, and that a subjective effect was not responsible.”

Some of these crew members told West that Moroccan fishermen and mountain dwellers experience a similar improvement after smoking hashish, and in 2002, another research team travelled to the Rif mountains in Morocco to investigate further. They gave a synthetic cannabinoid to one volunteer, and hashish to three more, then used a newly developed piece of kit ( to measure the sensitivity of their night vision before and after. Confirming West’s earlier report, they found thatcannabis improved night vision ( in all three of their test subjects.

Now, another study provides hard evidence for the claim, revealing a cellular mechanism by which cannabis might improve night vision. The findings, published ( recently in the open access journal eLife, could eventually be applied to the treatment patients with degenerative eye diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa.

West had suggested that cannabis might improve vision by acting on the eye muscles to dilate the pupils, so that more light falls on the retina, but other experiments ruled this out by showing that marijuana constricts the pupils ( . It’s also possible that the drug can influence activity in the visual cortex at the back of the brain, but the CB1 receptor protein ( , which binds the psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, is found at far higher levels in the eye ( than in the visual cortex ( , suggesting that any effects the drug has on vision are likely due to its actions on retinal cells.

Lois Miraucourt ( of the Montreal Neurological Institute and his colleagues looked not to stoned fishermen, but to tadpoles of the African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis, which are transparent and, therefore, amenable to all sorts of experiments that cannot be performed in humans or other lab animals.

In one set of experiments, they applied a synthetic cannabinoid to eye tissue preparations from the tadpoles, and used microelectrodes to measure how retinal ganglion cells, whose fibres form the optic nerve, respond to light. The researchers found that this made the cells more sensitive, increasing the rate at which they fired to both bright and dim light stimuli. Closer investigation revealed that this occurred due to inhibition of a protein called NKCC1, via its actions on the CB1 receptor.

NKCC1 is a co-transporter protein that normally shuttles sodium, potassium, and chloride ions in and out of cells, and their concentrations determine the electrical properties of nerve cells. Overall, these experiments show that cannabinoids reduce the concentration of chloride ions inside the retinal ganglion cells, making them more excitable and more sensitive to light.

Miraucourt and his colleagues then carried out another set of experiments to determine if the cellular responses they observed could contribute to vision. Tadpoles have a natural tendency to avoid dark moving dots, and the researchers exploited this by putting some tadpoles into a Petri dish, showing them dark dots under various lighting conditions, while using specially designed video-tracking software to track the movements of the tadpoles and the dots, and to measure the tadpoles’ avoidance responses.

Under normal lighting conditions, they observed no differences between tadpoles treated with a synthetic cannabinoid and untreated ones. In the dark, however, tadpoles given the cannabinoid avoided significantly more dots than untreated ones, which only responded to the dots as if by chance. Thus, the researchers conclude that the enhanced cellular responses observed in their first set of experiments improved the tadpoles’ sensitivity to contrast under low-light conditions.

Whether the findings are applicable to humans remains to be seen but, if so, they could pave the way to treatments for diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and glaucoma, which cause blindness by killing off cells in the retina. Cannabinoids are known to have a neuroprotective effect on retinal cells ( , so treatments based on the drug may, in theory, not only improve vision for patients with deteriorating eyesight, but also slow down the progression of such diseases.

** References

Miraucourt, L. S., et al. (2016). Endocannabinoid signaling enhances visual responses through modulation of intracellular chloride levels in retinal ganglion cells. eLife, 5: e15932. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.15932 [Full text ( ]

Russo, E. B., et al. (2004). Cannabis improves night vision: a case study of dark adaptometry and scotopic sensitivity in kif smokers of the Rif mountains of northern Morocco. J. Ethnopharmacol., 93: 99–104 [PDF ( ]

** New Initiatives and Elections in Cannabis Legalization (

NEW YORK, October 27, 2016 /PRNewswire/ --

The legalization of cannabis will take a leap during Election Day if California along with four other states decide to allow the use of recreational consumption. Many have fought to pass the laws for medical intentions that may help aid illnesses or symptoms. IfCalifornia passes the law this November, it could put pressure on other states to legalize the drug as well. MassRoots Inc. (OTC: MSRT), American Cannabis Company Inc. (OTC: AMMJ), United Cannabis Corp. (OTC: CNAB), Insys Therapeutics Inc. (NASDAQ: INSY ( ), GW Pharmaceuticals PLC- ADR (NASDAQ: GWPH).

By the end of 2016, the regulated cannabis sector in the U.S. is anticipated to rise over $7 billion if California says yes, as reported by ArcView Market Research and New Frontier. This evaluation is an astounding 26 percent improvement compared to last year, compelled mostly by recreational sales and demand of cannabis. Regulated recreational cannabis sales had surpassed nearly a billion dollars in 2015 compared to $351 million in 2014.

If the medical or recreational cannabis laws were passed, technology platform for cannabis consumers like MassRoots Inc. (OTCQB: MSRT) will be able to utilize this opportunity and begin registering consumers and specific businesses within the state at minimal cost. MassRoots is not associated with the production or sale of cannabis, rather the company is one of the largest and most active technology platforms for cannabis consumers, businesses and activists with over 900,000 registered users.

Canadian licensed producers of medical cannabis, Aphria Inc. and MassRoots had entered into one of the very first international partnerships between two cannabis companies. Under the agreement, MassRoots will assist Aphria to build its brand amongst its Canadian user base. Aphria will reimburse MassRoots a cash fee in dollars for every patient that was referred. "We are thrilled to partner with Aphria to help expand their patient base while opening a new revenue stream for our business," stated Isaac Dietrich, MassRoots CEO. "As a technology platform, MassRoots is available in every state and country that regulates the production of cannabis and we could not be more excited to have a partner of Aphria's caliber in the Canadian market."

"We are confident that the current political climate coupled with increasing demand in regulated cannabis markets presents a tremendous growth opportunity for MassRoots. Going forward, MassRoots will remain focused on introducing new monetization channels within our mobile applications while exploring strategic partnerships to expand our platform's capabilities." stated MassRoots CEO Isaac Dietrich.

American Cannabis Company Inc. (OTCQB: AMMJ) has a new design and consulting contract with a Canadian firm to produce a cannabis Licensed Producer facility within the provinces of the Atlantic. Creating an indoor facility will be the start of the project. Next, operations related to this project will launch with the cultivation of a substitute crop, and then switch to cannabis production as soon as operational licensing is tenable. Upcoming plans call for the creation of green houses and further indoor development.

United Cannabis Corp. (OTCQB: CNAB) has announced that its joint venture with Jamaica-based Cannabis Research & Development, will commence a trial program in partnership with the Rastafari Studies Centre for Cannabis Research, University of West Indies, Mona, to create protocols for the growth of Ital Standards that in turn be used as a monitor for the processing, cultivation and consumption of marijuana. The Joint Venture's original task will be to take note and confirm the genetics of the Centre's preliminary plantings, and to provide an outlook in the development of suitable standards and training approaches for the future.

Insys Therapeutics Inc. (NASDAQ: INSY ( ) focuses on developing and commercializing advanced and innovative drug delivery systems that helps increase the quality of the lives of patients. The company uses its sublingual spray technology along with its ability to able to develop pharmaceutical cannabinoids. Their product pipeline is concentrated on developing medicines that directly address regions of unmet medical necessities, which include pain, opioid dependence, the reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression, prevention of nausea and vomiting, and ovarian and gastric cancer. Furthermore, its product addresses the substantial unmet needs of severe pediatric epilepsies such as Dravet Syndrome, infantile spasms, and Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome.

Biopharmaceutical company, GW Pharmaceuticals PLC- ADR (NASDAQ: GWPH ( ) announced positive results of the second randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 3 clinical trial of its medicine, Epidiolex®. Epidiolex handles seizures linked with a rare and severe form of childhood-onset epilepsy, the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. In this trial, Epidiolex was added to the patient's current treatment and achieved the primary endpoint for both dose levels with high positive impact. According to the trial, patients taking Epidiolex 20mg/kg a day reached a median reduction in monthly drop seizures of 42 percent compared with a reduction of 17 percent in patients taking placebo and patients taking Epidiolex 10mg/kg a day showed a median reduction in monthly drop seizures of 37 percent compared with a reduction of 17 percent in patients taking placebo.

** What is Hash and How Does It Relate to Cannabis? (

o understand what hashish is means to realize the duality that exists with the female cannabis Sativa plant. First, there is the physical structure of the plant itself, which is this rich fibrous leafy material complete with essential amino acids and a myriad of benefits. Second, you have the essence of the cannabis plant, otherwise known as trichomes ( , which are responsible for producing the aromatic terpenes ( and medicinal cannabinoids ( that facilitate our therapeutic experiences.

Hashish is the moment at which the essence of cannabis (the trichomes) parts ways with the plant material itself. This is achieved when the ripe and resinous gland heads that line the surface of female cannabis plants are separated and collected. Processes to achieve resin separation have been practiced for centuries; however, the rapid rise of cannabis legalization in the western world has brought new methods in hash preparation that are sweeping legal markets by storm.

** Where Does Hash Originally Come From?

The word “hashish” originates from the Arabic language, roughly translating to mean “grass.” It is believed that the popularization of hash originated around A.D. 900, although some argue methods such as “charas,” or the collection of resin from the hands of cannabis farmers, are believed to have existed prior to written documentation.

As a result of early European exploration into Africa, hashish made its appearance in the western world at the turn of the 19th century. For years, European doctors imported hashish to conduct research, which led to the introduction of various extraction methods that allowed for further refinement into medications.

By the turn of the 20th century, cannabis extractions were accounting for a large majority of western pharmacopeia. It wasn’t until U.S. prohibition ( in the early 20th century that hashish products were eradicated from western medicine and pushed back into the black market.

** Different Types of Hash

With the reemergence of cannabis enthusiasm culminating in the 1960’s, hashish found its way back into the limelight. Countries such as Nepal, Afghanistan, and Morocco saw an increase of hashish exportation into western countries as a result of cannabis interest hitting the mainstream for western tourists. At this time the varieties of hash being imported were old world varieties, mainly hard-pressed, brick-like solids made from heat and pressure.

It wasn’t until the late 1980’s when gland separation was introduced to the west through a machine called the “master sifter.” According to Ed Rosenthal and his book Beyond Buds ( , this breakthrough machine by John Gallardi used vibration to separate the gland heads from the plant material.

During this time, Neil Schumacher and Rob Clarke began experimenting with water extraction methods, the early precursor for what we now refer to as water hash, or IWE (ice water extract). The equipment used to popularize the ice water extraction method was first introduced to the public in 1997 by Reinhard C. Delp at the High Times Cannabis Cup. His patents would later be adapted and modified by Mila Jansen with her “pollinator” isolation bags. This design would be further improved upon by Canadian hash enthusiast Marcus “Bubbleman” Richardson and his popular line of BubbleBags ( , one of only a handful of companies worldwide who have leased permissions to use methods from the original patent that was filed in 1999.

** How to Make Hash

Legalization efforts ( in the U.S. over the last half decade has significantly impacted the emergence of hashish enthusiasm. The Internet’s mass proliferation and dissemination of free information has also made previously proprietary hashish making techniques readily available.

Making hash at home today is as easy as purchasing a few inexpensive ingredients from a hardware store. You can even purchase ready-made screens for dry extractions, presses for old school brick hash preparations, or even bags for water extractions all online. Learning how to make hash at home today is incredibly easy with the availability of information through the internet and social media. To learn how hash is made, check out our Cannabis Craftsmanship video onhow to make hash ( featuring the experts at Funky Skunk Extracts.

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A Tale Of A Government Owned Dispensary

Cannabulletin: Your source for Aggregated Cannabis News View this email in your browser ( 10/24/2016

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Cannabis News that Informs, Intrigues & Captivates.

** A Tale Of A Government Owned Dispensary (

This story starts out just 45 minutes outside of Portland, Oregon ( , alongside the breathtakingly scenic Columbia River. Head right up Highway 84 East and it is just a few minutes from the Bridge of the Gods. This dispensary, located in North Bonneville, has set the standard for a small town to utilize the power of the cannabis plant. North Bonneville’s population hovers around 1,000 citizens and has, in the past, struggled to keep its lights on. Mayor Donald Stevens, often referred to by locals as the The Marijuana Mayor, of North Bonneville stated that the city proposed to bring cannabis into their town to help out with funding. “We are all about putting money back into the employee’s hands and into the community to improve life here in North Bonneville,” Stevens shared. After forming a government body which included a Board of Directors, the city’s vision began to take root.

The Cannabis Corner opened its doors on March 7, 2015. Mayor Stevens was their first customer and had great hopes of bringing some money back into the North Bonneville community. Here we are over a year later, and DOPE Magazine had the chance to catch up with Stevens. He shared that he believes the city is, “Probably about a year and a half or so away from getting its debts paid down,” and once they do they, “Are looking to funnel The Cannabis Corner profits, hundreds of thousands of dollars each year, back into a public fund that will help finance grants and get the community up and running on full again.” One of the first things the city wants to do is rebuild one of its local playgrounds.

A very unique part of this story is that The Cannabis Corner is being run by a non–profit group so the city is not liable for the sale of cannabis. Still being a government owned non–profit group, they have a much more forgiving budget that allows them to retain a well–trained staff who consider themselves educators. They are there to help the consumer from the instant they walk through the door with any and all of their cannabis needs.

With Skamania County having a moratorium that restricts the locals from growing cannabis ( in their community, The Cannabis Corner has had to focus on stocking its shelves with the best products from all around Washington State. You will never see their shelves empty. I was able to sit down with the Executive Director of the North Bonneville Public Development Authority, Robyn Legun. Legun looks over the everyday operations of The Cannabis Corner, touring a lot of the grow facilities so she is able to handpick products and ensure that they are of the highest quality. It is her top priority. Having a great budget set aside for products, The Cannabis Corner is able to generate a great revenue for cannabis growers and producers throughout the state. “Because The Cannabis Corner doesn’t have a single owner reaching into the pot asking for his or her dividends as fast as possible, we can seek out the smaller growers so we don’t have that same mandate that some shops have of buying low and selling high.” Legun explained. They are here for the people.

Robyn had fantastic stories to share about the shop’s customers: “So there was a specific group of three native fishermen that would come in and a couple of them were big drinkers. After coming in regularly they got turned onto cannabis concentrates. So after a couple of months we noticed only two of them started showing up, so we asked ‘hey where is your buddy?’ Their reply was that he had quit drinking and got a good job” I immediately asked if he had quit smoking as well, “No no, he was able to keep smoking. And in this case, cannabis helped him pull his life together, and this is just one of many stories that are out there.”

With The Cannabis Corner carrying glass from all over Oregon ( and Washington, they are trying to support every aspect of the cannabis industry while giving back to their community. This is the first and only municipality-owned dispensary in the world. “We have been the only municipality-owned pot store for a year–and–a–half, and my goal is to be the first not the last,” Mayor Stevens concluded.

** Before Amendment 2, legal cannabis industry already budding in Florida (

With his raspy voice, long ponytail and friendly demeanor, George Douthitt is the guy you might get if you called central casting and ordered up a vintage pothead.

True to form, the 63-year-old eagerly accepted a delivery from his weed guy one recent morning, forking over $50 for a small package of marijuana.

This drug deal, however, quickly veered off script. The buy was completely aboveboard — as evidenced by the $3.50 in sales taxes tacked onto his tab.

Florida voters on Nov. 8 decide the fate of Amendment 2 ( , which would widen the availability of state-regulated marijuana. But a legal cannabis industry already is budding in the state.

Douthitt is one of nearly 400 Floridians permitted to use a breed of cannabis known as Charlotte’s Web or Haleigh’s Hope — and once labeled Hippie’s Disappointment, because it has too little THC to get you high. The marijuana can be purchased only by patients whose doctors vouch that they struggle with seizure disorders or severe muscle spasms.

The low-THC cannabis can be grown and sold by only a handful of state-approved companies. These ganjapreneurs have invested millions in climate-controlled cultivation facilities, carefully calibrated toxicology testing and retail networks.

After taking delivery, Douthitt didn’t light up — smoking marijuana flowers remains illegal in Florida. Instead, he lifted his vial of cannabis oil and carefully measured 5 milliliters, then squirted a few drops of the amber liquid under his tongue.

Douthitt, who lives in Pembroke Pines, suffers daily back spasms and cluster headaches, which he says are more severe than migraines.

“It is a mule kick when it hits me,” Douthitt said. “They call them suicide headaches. You want to kill yourself.”

The legal cannabis oil is low in THC but high in cannabidiol, or CBD, which is thought to ease convulsions, inflammation, anxiety and nausea. Douthitt says the CBD oil turns down the intensity of his spasms and headaches and eases his nausea.

“Nobody knows why it does what it does, but it works,” he said.

Douthitt buys his CBD oil from Trulieve, the marijuana business that was the first in the state to supply product to patients.

Trulieve operates an 80,000-square-foot growhouse in the Florida Panhandle town of Quincy and this summer opened dispensaries in Tallahassee and Clearwater. The company also delivers throughout the state. Douthitt received his order at his doctor’s office in Lauderhill.

In addition to CBD, Trulieve makes high-THC cannabis, which is available to Floridians who are terminally ill. State lawmakers this year passed a measure legalizing full-strength pot for patients who are likely to die within a year.

Trulieve Chief Executive Kim Rivers said tens of thousands — and perhaps hundreds of thousands — of patients might sign up for Florida’s legalized weed in the coming years, even if Amendment 2 fails.

“While we don’t think there’s going to be an overnight boom, we do see it as growing steadily over time,” Rivers said.

Amendment 2 would broaden the number of patients who could use high-THC cannabis legally. The measure would make pot available not just to people who are on their death beds but to patients coping with cancer, AIDS and other diseases.

Rivers is cagey about how much Trulieve has invested in start-up costs. The company was required to post a $5 million bond to win its state license, and setting up a statewide operation with 30 employees required a “significant” investment, she said.

For now, Rivers acknowledged, Trulieve is losing money. There simply aren’t enough customers in Florida’s new cannabis programs to offset the hefty entry fee.

“I don’t think it takes an advanced degree in accounting to do that math,” Rivers said.

Among the state-approved marijuana businesses is Modern Health Concepts of Miami-Dade County. Like Trulieve, it doesn’t disclose how much it has invested to ramp up its business.

And like Trulieve, Modern Health Concepts touts the purity of its product and the cleanliness of its facilities.

Because Florida requires a physician’s approval for medical pot, the state’s cannabis producers say they must persuade doctors that CBD is legit medicine.

“Physician engagement is critical,” said Richard Young, CEO of Modern Health Concepts.

For that reason, Florida’s cannabis growers have taken pains to distance themselves from the industry’s Cheech and Chong roots. In Colorado, where weed is legal to anyone who wants to buy it, strains are marketed with provocative brand names such as Outer Space, Bio Jesus and Dopium.

In Florida, on the other hand, cannabis companies say they’ll be far more subdued in their marketing.

** Supplier Negotiations in a Non-Vertically Integrated and Emerging Cannabis Market (

With just 44 operational medical cannabis dispensaries (retailers) and 19 cultivation centers (suppliers), the Illinois medical cannabis industry is indeed small. All legal medical cannabis in Illinois must be grown, harvested and sold within the state. In other words, no cannabis can be bought or sold over state lines.

Most cannabis business licensees ( have a stake in either the retail or supply side, but few are vertically integrated. The gap between dispensaries, who engage in frequent patient interactions, and cultivators, who grow and process medical cannabis, creates a non-vertically integrated supply chain. This market is further complicated by the number of retailers and suppliers, similar product offerings (for example, five cultivators currently stock the strain of flower Blue Dream), and dynamic nature of product availability (largely contingent on harvest and shelf life.) Accordingly, dispensaries must work in close cooperation with cultivators by developing long-term, stable relationships to offer products that best meet patients’ needs.

As the owner of a medical cannabis dispensary in the Chicago suburbs, we view our negotiations with suppliers as a channel to understand each other — what’s important to each party, how do we prioritize our own needs and the needs of our counter-parts, and what are the deal terms to maximize overall value.

** Insights Into the Medical Marijuana Supply Chain

** The Value of Negotiations

In order to build these strategic cooperative relationships, we recognize that our negotiations with suppliers provide a means for both parties to obtain their own profits. From the viewpoint of income distribution, we seek to obtain a Pareto optimal solution within the whole supply chain. When this is achieved neither one of us can be made “better off” without making the other party “worse off.” A Pareto optimal solution serves to maximize the number of high-quality products, promotes supply chain throughput, and creates a win-win with regard to price volume negotiations. Downstream the result this provides to the patient is assurance of in-stock inventory, greater product variety and affordable product pricing.

** Assessing Our Own Needs and Objectives

Our first step in the negotiation process is to evaluate our own needs and objectives. We routinely assess our inventory levels. We make use of reporting tools in our point-of-sale system to determine what products need to be reordered and the reorder quantity. Metrics like inventory turnover, inventory to sales ratio and out-of-stock items are evaluated. We also take into account patient product requests and new products to hit the market. For example, we may choose to reduce our inventory count of cannabis oil topical bars now that topically applied cannabis patches have come to market.

Secondly, when determining the reorder quantity, we consider how much we are willing to pay (cost of goods) compared to the price the product will sell for (revenue per a unit.) We make estimates on the effect that future supply of cannabis will have on prices, i.e. more cultivators and an expanded product line may drive prices down, a trend we’ve seen in Colorado as prices have dropped by more than 40 percent since the beginning of 2016. We consider whether it’s in our best interest to make smaller, more frequent purchases or if we should take advantage of volume discounts and order larger quantities.

** Understanding Your Supplier and Their Priorities

Understanding suppliers’ objectives can illuminate proposed and negotiated deal terms. We talk with suppliers on a weekly basis, go out with them socially and visit their cultivation facilities. We ask questions and open dialogue: * What other dispensaries carry their products? Do they have a relationship with our closest competitor? Is the dispensary 20 minutes from us carrying their products? And if so, must we carry these same products, as a point of parity, to meet consumer inventory expectations? * Are they looking to offload a particularly large amount of inventory? If so, for what reason? * Which of their products are in greatest demand? Why are these products so sought after? What are their stock levels on these products? * Is their company looking to innovate? Where are their R&D efforts focused? What’s in their product pipeline? * How ambitious are their efforts to gain shelf space? * Are there opportunities for us to co-brand or co-market? Are they open to white-labeling their products? * Will they negotiate on payment terms?

** Embracing Transparency and Ongoing Communication

We believe transparency and communication are the bedrock of our supplier relationships. We openly share product sales data. We drill down in to this data and look under the hood by soliciting feedback from patients and dispensary agents. We incentivize participation by patients in product surveys and focus groups or to leave reviews on our Facebook page. We evaluate a patient’s loyalty to a particular cultivator or category of products, how the product met a patient’s expectations and likelihood of product repurchase.

This feedback loop guides our product roadmap. It ensures our products are exceeding customer expectations. The more information we provide to our suppliers, the more likely it is that they can create even better products and we can deliver a more amazing customer experience.

** Collaborating Outside of the Supply Chain

Discussing the single issue of price can be contentious and, even, counterproductive when trying to strike a negotiated agreement. To this end, we present multiple, extraneous opportunities to our suppliers as a means to strengthen our relationship. These opportunities include: * Engagement with “condition-affiliated” groups, i.e. joining forces for an educational presentation to epileptic patients on the medicinal benefits of cannabis for those suffering from seizures, * Product specials geared towards specific groups of patients, such as deeply discounted products for Veterans on Memorial Day, * Outreach to the medical community and * Assistance with prospective patient enrollment in the Illinois medical cannabis program

In conclusion, supplier relationship management should not be viewed as a “once and done” exercise. In a non-static environment, particularly one like the Illinois medical cannabis market which is characterized by high product innovation and accelerated demand growth, an iterative assessment of the supply chain must be continuously undertaken.

** Cannabis Tax Revenue Is Overwhelming Oregon’s Tax Office (

Oregon’s adult-use cannabis program is taking in so much tax money that it’s affecting day-to-day operations at the Oregon Liquor Control Commission’s Portland office. On Thursday, the OLCC announced adjustments to the payment process because they’ve been running into some issues with cannabis business owners paying their taxes in person.

Oregon officials estimate that they’ll take in around $43 million in tax revenue from recreational cannabis this year. The tax adult-use sales at dispensaries went into effect on January 4, 2016. More than $10.5 million in tax revenue came in during the first quarter of 2016.

Because many cannabis businesses have limited or no access to traditional banking services, they end up making their tax payments in cash. Doing that requires booking an appointment with the OLCC. And those are becoming harder to come by.

For example, appointment slots late in the month are usually all full, which leaves the commission little to no time between appointments. So, if one of the appointments runs over the scheduled time—like if someone shows up late for their appointment, or brings in a larger payment than originally planned for, it can put the commission behind schedule for the rest of the day.

The state accepts cannabis tax in several different forms: check, money order, or cash. Business representatives paying in cash must call for an appointment at least 48 hours in advance. (That number is 503-945-8050.)

To help the OLCC make payment processing more efficient, keep these tips to keep in mind: 1. If possible, schedule your appointment for earlier in the month. This is particularly important if you’re paying on behalf of multiple locations, because it will take longer for the OLCC to process multiple payments. 2. Schedule your appointment at least 48 hours in advance. Consider setting up the next monthly appointment at the end of the current month’s appointment. 3. Arrive at the scheduled time with your payment voucher filled out fully and correctly. 4. Bring the money sorted by denomination, facing the same way, and ready to be counted.

The OLCC reserves the right to reject any payment from businesses that don’t abide by the commission’s requirements, listed here ( .

Oregon’s tax rate for adult-use cannabis ranges from 17 to 20 percent. Legislation set the base tax rate at 17 percent. Under certain circumstances, cities and counties may add up to an additional 3 percent local tax.

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A New Study Suggests Cannabis Could Treat Cervical Cancer

Cannabulletin: Your source for Aggregated Cannabis News View this email in your browser ( 10/06/2016

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Cannabis News that Informs, Intrigues & Captivates.

** A New Study Suggests Cannabis Could Treat Cervical Cancer ( - Vice's Motherboard

A new study suggests that cannabis might be useful in treating cervical cancer.

Through in vitro, or test tube/petri dish, analysis, researchers ( from the biochemistry department at North-West University in Potchefstroom, South Africa found that the non-psychotropic cannabinoid, or chemical compound, CBD (cannabidiol), taken from a Cannabis sativa extract, could hold anticarcinogenic properties. They pointed out that cannabis acted on the cancerous cells through apoptosis, or a process of cell death, causing only the cancerous cells to kill themselves, and inhibiting their growth.

Cervical cancer is no longer a leading cause of death as much as it used to be in the United States, thanks in large part to the widespread use of pap smears, but it's still a widespread threat. And in Sub-Saharan Africa, it kills 250,000 ( women every year. "This makes it the most lethal cancer amongst black women and calls for urgent therapeutic strategies," the study's authors wrote ( in the BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine journal. "In this study we compare the anti-proliferative effects of crude extract of Cannabis sativa and its main compound cannabidiol on different cervical cancer cell lines."

It will take much more research before cannabis can be integrated into official cervical cancer treatments in sub-Saharan Africa. But earlier studies also shows that cannabis has been useful in treating not only the symptoms of cancer and chemotherapy, but also the cancer itself.

One study ( from the journal of Current Clinical Pharmacology found that cannabis served as a preventative agent, reducing inflammation, which researchers also said was useful in reducing the likelihood of cancer. Another study ( from Oncology Hematology also noted cannabis' anti-cancer effects, explaining how the plant's cannabinoids inhibited tumor growth in vitro, such as in a petri dish or test tube, and in vivo, or a living organism.

A handful of other studies have also looked into cannabis as a treatment specifically for cervical cancer. Another ( from the University Hospital in Geneva, Switzerland, found that the cannabinoids, including the body's own endocannabinoids, offered "attractive opportunities for the development of novel potent anticancer drugs."

At the same time, there could also be carcinogenic effects of cannabis smoke, especially for cancer patients. One study ( in France found that "increased risks of lung or colorectal cancer due to marijuana smoking were not observed, but increased risks of prostate and cervical cancers among non-tobacco smokers...were observed."

With that said, often medical marijuana is ingested via capsules, tinctures, vaporizable oils, and other non-smokeable, more pharmaceutical-style forms. Should cannabis eventually become approved for cervical cancer treatment in Africa, it may be up for debate whether whole plant therapy (in which all the cannabinoids work synergistically through the "entourage effect") or specific cannabinoid therapy is best.

** National Guard Declares Victory Over Grandmother’s Cannabis Plant (

The Massachusetts National Guard and the Massachusetts State Police teamed up last month to eradicate a pernicious threat to public safety: a single cannabis plant tucked away in an 81-year-old grandmother’s raspberry patch.

“All that remains,” reported the Daily Hampshire Gazette, “is a stump and a ragged hole in the ground.”

Crack work, team. Mission accomplished.

The story, first reported by Gazette writer Scott Merzbach, ran under the headline “Raid! National Guard, State Police descend on 81-year-old’s property to seize single pot plant” — a headline that Vox said ( “perfectly demonstrated why so many people have turned against keeping marijuana illegal.” Massachusetts is one of five states that will vote on adult-use cannabis legalization next month.

Here’s the rundown from the Gazette:

Margaret Holcomb said she was growing the plant as medicine, a way to ease arthritis and glaucoma and help her sleep at night. Tucked away in a raspberry patch and separated by a fence from any neighbors, the plant was nearly ready for harvest when a military-style helicopter and police descended on Sept. 21.

In a joint raid, the Massachusetts National Guard and State Police entered her yard and cut down the solitary plant in what her son, Tim Holcomb, said was a “pretty shocking” action — one that he argues constitutes unlawful surveillance and illegal search and seizure.

“It’s scary as hell,” said Tim Holcomb.

The raid was part of a broader operation that seized 44 plants from Massachusetts residents. No criminal charges were filed, but it’s not clear any charges would’ve stood up in court, anyway, as the surveillance and seizures appear to have occurred without a warrant. According to the Gazette, “Holcomb said he was told that as long as he did not demand that a warrant be provided to enter the property or otherwise escalate the situation, authorities would file no criminal charges.”

Police confiscated and destroyed the plants, they said, because they were in “plain view” and thus illegal even for registered medical patients. Margaret Holcomb does not have a medical recommendation, reportedly because she’s concerned about obstacles to obtaining a doctor’s authorization.

The raids were planned and executed as top officials, including Massachusetts Gov. Charlie Baker and Boston Mayor Marty Walsh, railed against Question 4, which would legalize adult cannabis in the state. They’ve repeatedly warned that legal, regulated cannabis is the real threat to public safety—and not, say, overzealous policing.

Holcomb, who lives in Amherst, Mass., told the Gazette she’s “not a huge social activist” but feels her civil rights were violated by the warrantless raid. And if she’s not able to get medical cannabis through other means, she said, she might simply grow another plant.

“I’m prepared to take actions if I need to,” Holcomb said. “I don’t picture them out here and putting an 81-year-old woman in jail.”

Don’t be too sure, Margaret. As the New York Times Editorial Board noted earlier this year, we’ve seen a lot worse ( .

** Where Did Dabs Come From? A History of Cannabis Extracts (

Solvent-based cannabis extracts ( , often referred to as hash oils ( or dabs ( , have completely dominated cannabis concentrate markets over the last several years. With the advancements in solvent extraction technologies and methodologies, new products are constantly circulating the shelves of dispensaries. Budders and shatters, once prized as the holy grail of hash oils, are now sharing retail space with new flavor-enhanced distillates and highterpene ( full spectrum extracts (HTFSE’s), products that were virtually unheard of just five years ago.

These processes, now being hailed as the future of concentrate manufacturing, owe credit to decades of botanical extraction advancements that preceded them.

Cannabis concentrates ( are said to have been around (in some form) since the 1940s, adapting from the pre-20th century botanical extraction technologies that are responsible for bringing cannabis to the U.S. pharmacopeia throughout the 1800s. However, the revival and adaptation of solvent-based extraction practices as we know it today is somewhat new, taking shape only over the last several decades. Needless to say, the story of how hash oil came to popularity is a bit hazy and shrouded in anecdotes, but there are a few major players in the movement that are worth mentioning.

** World War II and the MK Ultra Program

Infused concoctions involving extracted cannabinoids ( are nothing new and have been used for thousands of years. Over time, many of these recipes have evolved into the potent oral medicinals ( that once lined the shelves of U.S. pharmacies into the 1800s, before cannabis prohibition. Although these practices laid the foundation for solvent-based cannabis extraction, manufacturing a product intended for oral consumption through vaporization ( first appeared in the 1940s.

Confirmed and declassified World War II intelligence documents point to an agency, the U.S. Office of Strategic Services (OSS), that incorporated a THC acetate “serum” into its controversial biochemical interrogation program. The man responsible for this program, George White, used hash oil-laced tobacco cigarettes, along with LSD preparations, to interrogate various prisoners and unsuspecting persons. These controversial techniques would later be used by White throughout the ’50s and into the ’60s under the the highly publicized CIA program “MK Ultra” (and yes, there’s a strain named after it ( ).

** Hash Oil in the ’70s

In part 8 of D. Gold’s 1973 (2nd ed. 1989) book Cannabis Alchemy: The Art of Modern Hashmaking, a brief overview is given on the preparation of a translucent cannabis “honey” oil. The solvents used pure alcohol and activated charcoal. After an evaporation procedure, the remaining byproduct described is a translucent amber oil that takes on the appearance of a dark honey.

Author Michael Starks elaborates on this methodology considerably in his 1977 (2nd ed. 1990) book, Marijuana Chemistry: Genetics Processing and Potency, with an in-depth overview of hash oil preparation. His analyses comprise of information pertaining to various solvents used, which include chloroform, ethanol, petroleum ether, and isopropanol, among others. Various extraction apparatuses and purification procedures are also described in detail, making this one of the earliest and most detailed accounts of the origin of modern hash oil.

** Inventing the Closed Loop System

Erowid, a popular online psychoactive library that surfaced in the mid-1990s, put out an article in 1999 titled “Hash Honey Oil Technique,” offering arguably the first detailed description of butane hash oil ( extraction procedures to the Internet. The controversial methods described in the article would later be known as “open blasting,” a dangerous extraction method that exposes the highly flammable butane used.

Nevertheless, the process of feeding butane though a vertical column packed with ground cannabis would later inspire the invention of closed loop systems (CLS), which heavily refined this method by containing the highly flammable hydrocarbon solvents and then recycling them back through the system.

** The Advent of Budder and Dab Rigs

In 2005, a Cannabis Culture article was released online titled “Beautiful Budder,” where a Canadian man who uses the alias Budderking is interviewed about his proprietary hash oil “budder.” Budderking describes working with a colleague in the early ’90s out of British Columbia to create an amber glass substance by using a series of refinements involving alcohol.

After leaving an amber glass sample in a windowsill for a prolonged period of time, Budderking and his colleague witnessed their sample “buttering up.” Once they tweaked their findings, they were able to develop a product that made its debut on the shelves at Da Kine dispensary in 2003.

With this, Budderking also introduced a small unit designed to make vaporizing the concentrate easier, the precursor for what we now call dab rigs ( . This product would only be available for a brief amount of time, but word of the procedure quickly caught on and made its way to other markets, namely Colorado and Southern California.

Several years later in 2009, cannabis connoisseurs were beginning to create an online buzz in the forums about high quality solvent-based hash oils. By the next year, in 2010, hash oil products made their debut at the High TimesCannabis Cup, and shortly thereafter, dispensaries were beginning to carry early versions of budders, saps, and waxes at a much more fervent rate.

** Cannabis Extracts Today

With the onset of medical cannabis and recreational legalization in more states, companies began to focus heavy R&D on improving extraction technologies. This led to advanced CLS systems, C02 supercritical extractors, and an array of organizations leading the way in creating safer and cleaner hash oil products. Since late 2012, hash oil enthusiasm has been on the rise and has not slowed down yet.

Hash oil has come a long way since its nefarious inceptions in the early prohibition days, and even longer considering the leaps and bounds that solvent-based cannabis processing has undergone in the last two decades. Thanks to those who have helped refine solvent-based extraction technologies, hash oil enthusiasm and the culture around it is burgeoning and will undoubtedly continue to secure itself as a dominating sector of the overarching cannabis market.

Resources: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Cannabis Alchemy (2nd ed.) 1977 and 1989. D. Gold 10. Marijuana Chemistry: Genetics, Processing, and Potency (2nd ed.) 1977 and 1990. Michael Starks

** Is Cannabis Safe to Use During Pregnancy? New Study Clarifies Risks (

A recent review of cannabis and pregnancy studies ( provides new insight on a question that has long weighed on the minds of families and to-be mothers: Is cannabis safe to use during pregnancy?

Published in Obstetrics & Gynecology this month, the authors reviewed 31 studies between 1982 and 2015, evaluated their results, and concluded that cannabis – when used without tobacco or other drugs – posed no significant risks to specific concerns about birth weight and preterm delivery. This was consistent with findings of a 2010 study ( funded by the CDC ( .

Up until this point, studies on cannabis and pregnancy have shown somewhat contradictory results regarding birth weight and preterm delivery, a confusion that researchers attributed in part to inadequate separation of confounding variables, or factors that produce correlations even though a causal relationship doesn’t actually exist. For example, cannabis consumption and tobacco use are correlated, making it difficult to tease apart whether one or both contributes to low birth weight or preterm delivery.

The authors wrote:

“We found that maternal marijuana use during pregnancy is not an independent risk factor for low birth weight or preterm delivery after adjusting for factors such as tobacco use. There also does not appear to be an increased risk for other adverse neonatal outcomes such as SGA and placental abruption once we account for other influencing factors.”

The authors of this study concluded that cannabis use during pregnancy is still not something to be “encouraged or condoned.” Why? While this study focused on two specific birth outcomes of mothers using cannabis during pregnancy, it did not look at long-term developmental health or other risks during gestation.

A 2014 study ( , for example, found evidence that THC exposure during pregnancy affected brain development in both mice and humans. Fetal development is an intricate process involving specifically timed signaling that may be impacted by THC, leading to impairments later in life. Although this newest review may help relax concerns relating to birth weight and preterm delivery, there may still be other complications attributable to maternal cannabis use.

For this reason, most medical professionals still strongly recommended that pregnant women abstain from cannabis use, despite the temptation to use it for nausea ( and stress ( during the tumultuous time of pregnancy.

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Ancient Cannabis 'Burial Shroud' Discovered in Desert Oasis - National Geographic

Cannabulletin: Your source for Aggregated Cannabis News View this email in your browser ( 10/04/2016

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** Ancient Cannabis 'Burial Shroud' Discovered in Desert Oasis (

Archaeologists are hailing the discovery of an "extraordinary cache" of cannabis found in an ancient burial in northwest China, saying that the unique find adds considerably to our understanding of how ancient Eurasian cultures used the plant for ritual and medicinal purposes.

In a report ( in the journal Economic Botany, archaeologist Hongen Jiang and his colleagues describe the burial of an approximately 35-year-old adult man with Caucasian features in China's Turpan Basin. The man had been laid out on a wooden bed with a reed pillow beneath his head.

Thirteen cannabis plants, each up to almost three feet long, were placed diagonally across the man's chest, with the roots oriented beneath his pelvis and the tops of the plants extending from just under his chin, up and alongside the left side of his face. (Read how Eurasian gold artifacts tell the tale of drug-fueled rituals ( .)

Radiocarbon dating of the tomb's contents indicates that the burial occurred approximately 2,400 to 2,800 years ago.

This discovery adds to a growing collection of archaeological evidence showing that cannabis consumption was "very popular" across the Eurasian steppe thousands of years ago, says Jiang.

A Truly Unique Burial

The burial is one of 240 graves excavated at the Jiayi cemetery in Turpan, and is associated with the Subeixi culture ( (also known as the Gushi Kingdom) that occupied the area between roughly 3,000 to 2,000 years ago. At the time, Turpan's desert oasis was an important stop ( on the Silk Road.

Cannabis plant parts have been found in a few other Turpan burials, most notably in a contemporaneous burial in nearby Yanghai cemeterydiscovered ( nearly a decade ago, which contained ( close to two pounds of cannabis seeds and powdered leaves.

West of Turpan, cannabis seeds have also been found in first millennium B.C. Scythian ( burials in southern Siberia, including one of a woman who possibly died of breast cancer ( . Archaeologists suspect she may have been using cannabis in part to ease her symptoms. (Read "Will Marijuana for Sick Kids Get Government to Rethink Weed? ( ")

This is the first time archaeologists have recovered complete cannabis plants, as well as the first incidence of their use as a "shroud" in a human burial.

** A Republican lawmaker's hat at a marijuana conference says it all: 'Make Cannabis Great Again' (

As more people around the country gradually begin to accept marijuana as a plant rather than a drug, more plans surrounding this growing business continue to emerge. In a recent interview with Billboard ( , Damian Marley ( explained his plans to help expand the business in a way that would benefit all parties involved. Marley, in partnership with Ocean Grown Extracts, is working to transform an old California state prison into a grow space for medical marijuana. The former prison has 77,000 square feet of land available to be turned into farm land that could grow product for the many medical marijuana dispensaries within the state.

Marijuana is key part of Marley's lifestyle as it is always around him due to his friends, family, and faith. It comes as no surprise that he would try to make an effort to take the news and business around the plant into a positive direction. It seems ironic that a prison that once held inmates for legal offenses brought on by marijuana could become a new space to legally grow the same exact plant, but Marley is aware of this. "Many people sacrificed so much for the herb over the years who got locked up," says Marley. "If this [venture] helps people and it's used for medicinal purposes and inspires people, it's a success."

Marley and his partners from Ocean Grown Extracts $4.1 million purchase of the Claremont Custody Center in Coalinga, CA has already lifted an estimated $3.3 million debt from the city. This new business venture is also expected to provide at least 100 new jobs, not to mention the millions of dollars in profit and revenue. However, as medical marijuana continues to spread and become legalized in more states around America, Marley and his partners have hopes to expand beyond California. Just last month, Marley partnered with TruCannabis in Colorado to launch Stoney Hill—a 3,000 square foot dispensary in Denver—as well as a 30,000 square foot grow space.

This has been a long time coming for Marley, and many others, but it's just the beginning. "This was definitely something we were working towards for a long time, before I was even born," says Marley. "There was Peter Tosh's "Legalize It" and songs like that—this is something our culture has been working towards. I was optimistic that it would one day be legal—and now it is here."

** Man seeks damages from Sheriff’s Office for culling cannabis grow (

A Round Mountain man has filed a claim saying Shasta County Sheriff's Office violated his civil rights when they destroyed his medical marijuana collective garden in July, the second time in about five years, his attorney said Monday.

James Madison Coleman, through Redding attorney Eric Berg, submitted the claim against the Sheriff's Office seeking restitution and punitive damages, Berg said at a news conference Monday morning.

Sheriff Tom Bosenko couldn't be reached for comment Monday.

The claim challenges the 2014 measure voters passed in 2014 that outlaws all outdoor grows in the unincorporated county.

The claim, a first step in filing a lawsuit, centers on a July 7 incident that began with a dispute between neighbors, Berg said.

According to a sheriff's report released by Berg, two Shasta County sheriff's deputies went to Coleman's home at about 6:45 p.m. The report doesn't mention what the argument was over, though sheriff's logs say it revolved around a locked gate.

Deputy Gary Nunnelley Jr., in his report, said that he and deputy Tim Estes noticed "several marijuana plants" outdoors and a boarded-up shed he suspected housed weed while approaching Coleman's home to speak with him about the dispute.

Nunnelly asked Coleman about the grow and Coleman showed him his doctor's recommendation and said he grew for a 17-member collective, the deputy wrote.

That collective is registered with the state, thus it's legitimate and protected by the California constitution, Berg says.

Nunnelly wrote he asked to see the indoor grow and went with Coleman to the shed, which housed 80 plants and 175 clones and lacked sufficient security and ventilation, and thus was out of compliance.

Deputies, even if they were able to see some outdoor plants from the road, should have offered Coleman a chance to fix the problems instead of destroying the grow there.

None of the plants were flowering but were out of compliance of the county ordinance banning all outdoor grows, Nunnelly wrote.

However, Coleman told Nunnelly he'd been raided by the county before in April 2011 and charged with marijuana possession for sale and transportation, Berg said. He was acquitted of all charges and has a right under California's constitution to grow, Berg said.

One of the deputies allegedly told Coleman to move to Mendocino or Humboldt counties, Berg said.

His client is planning to move, Berg said.

"The only way he can live in peace is if he leaves Shasta County," Berg said.


You’ll notice something different about cannabis edibles in Colorado starting October 1st, namely a prominent THC warning printed on all the goodies, due to the implementation of House Bill 1366, which was approved by State Attorney General Cynthia Coffman back in August 2014 ( .

These “emergency rules,” intended to address the issue of people accidentally ingesting pot food, have been slow to roll out due to numerous complications including designing a universal THC warning symbol and deciding how to apply it to a diverse selection of cannabis-infused foodstuffs.

Last November, the Colorado Marijuana Enforcement Division revealed the universal symbol: a diamond shape containing the letters THC along with an exclamation point.

Applied to cannabis-infused foods by using expensive custom molds, stencils, airbrushing or frosting, the universal symbol is impracticable to imprint on bulk products like granola or liquid drinks, so those items are now limited to individually-packaged, single serving sizes of only 10 milligrams.

All edibles manufacturers must comply with this new rule by October 1st, while recreational stores and dispensaries can sell inventory without the universal symbol until December 1st. (Look for big sales on Black Friday!)

Other new rules include mandated servings sizes of ONLY 10 mg of THC each that must be scored, marked or cut; a ban on using the word “candy” on packaging or labeling; and a limit on how many edibles can be purchased at one time, so you can only walk out of a legal pot store with 80 10-mg servings of pot food, intended to be equivalent to one ounce of flower.

Last week, the Marijuana Enforcement Division released a bulletin regarding HB 16-1427 and its effect on multi-dose liquid products. Cannabis-infused drinks are still permitted as long as they are “packaged in a structure that uses a single mechanism to achieve both child resistance and accurate pouring measurement of each liquid serving in increments equal to or less than 10 milligrams of activated THC per serving, with no more than 100 milligrams activated THC per package.”

Colorado edibles producers have been preparing for the new rules for over a year, with many manufacturers researching innovative ways to mark their products with the THC warning. Designing new molds for cannabis-infused chocolates was a straightforward solution, but retooling production processes was costly and time-consuming.

Denver-based cannabis chocolate company Blue Kudu ( took the opportunity to envision a complete re-design of their product line, requiring 2,000 new chocolate molds that cost upwards of $30,000. Still, the company embraced the change, confirming their commitment to public safety by going above and beyond the new requirements to also include a 10 mg dosage stamp on each chocolate segment.

“We needed to increase our chocolate bar size by 33 percent to legibly fit the THC warnings,” company spokesperson Gina Cannon explains, “This, in turn, required changing our packaging as the new bar would not fit, which then necessitated an entirely new packaging solution. Using the most advanced child-resistant packaging available from Ecobliss, we created a new box-shaped packaging that fit the bar and met the state regulations.”

Baked goods aren’t as easy to stamp or mark compared to chocolate, so Karin Lazarus at Sweet Mary Jane ( had to get more creative, printing the symbol on tiny candies which were then added to her signature truffles.

“These alone are fairly expensive, however, the major cost is putting them onto the products. Along with the new packaging rules, this has added quite a bit to our costs,” Lazarus writes. “We tried about 10 different methods of getting the symbol onto our edibles and for the most part they looked so unappealing that we chose not to use them. I don’t see another way to get the symbol on the truffles or chocolates and still have them look beautiful.”

Sweet Mary Jane is still experimenting with how to apply the universal symbol to their coveted brownies and cookies while continuing to making them fresh and visually stunning.

Alternatively, Sweet Grass Kitchen ( , a wholesale edible manufacturer in Colorado that produces mostly baked goods, is using a class 4 laser to engrave the universal symbol into all of their baked goods. This was the best solution due to the porous nature of baked goods which the CO Marijuana Enforcement Division deemed, to much industry objection, ‘practicable to imprint’ with the symbol.

“This regulatory change requires production capabilities that are extremely advanced for a wholesale bakery of our size. The timeline to get into compliance was also unreasonable—any other industry would have multiple years to comply, whereas the cannabis industry had less than one.” remarks Eric Knight, the COO of Sweet Grass Kitchen.

As stated previously ( , these new regulations will do little or nothing to decrease accidental ingestions by toddlers, the age group most susceptible to these mishaps, because little kids don’t read or care about symbols printed on food. They’ll eat batteries, makeup or detergent pods, let alone pot brownies. Parental education campaigns and increased public awareness are the only real tools available to battle the pesky problem of kids visiting the ER due to eating cannabis-infused edibles.

Also, the new rules only effect license-holding manufacturers, not people making edibles at home, where no metered dosing, child-resistant packaging or printed THC warnings are mandated. Higher prices for professional edibles will continue to drive customers to purchase black market products which are difficult to dose correctly without the benefit of lab testing.

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GW Pharmaceutical Gets Closer To Forcing Cannabis On FDA

Cannabulletin: Your source for Aggregated Cannabis News View this email in your browser ( 10/04/2016

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** Alaska’s First Legal Cannabis Harvest Just Began. It’s Already Stalled. (

** Alaska

Alaska’s first commercial cannabis harvests are underway ( . The first official legal crop comes from Greatland Ganja, a small cultivator on the Kenai Peninsula. Greatland has harvested about 75 pounds of cannabis so far, of an expected total of about 100 pounds consisting of 10 different strains. Unfortunately, however, the first harvest may not have anywhere to go. Distribution and sales are stalled until state-licensed testing laboratories are up and running. At the moment two labs are nearing completion in Anchorage: CannTest hopes to open by mid-October and AK Green Labs aims to be online by early November.

** Wholesale cannabis price drops 40 percent (

According to Tradiv, a cannabis trading platform based in Boulder, wholesale cannabis prices have fallen from approximately $2,500 per pound in October of 2015 to around $1,500 per pound in August of this year.

In the beginning of Colorado’s legal market, companies didn’t know what to expect in terms of demand or supply but one things was for sure, it was growing quickly. The price point was high, in part a reflection of the novelty of legal cannabis and pent up demand. Now almost three years old, the market is beginning to stabilize, but consumers should expect a few more tremors as the foundation of the market shifts and settles into place.

“The problem was that that growth was not projectable nor was it understood,” says Mike Bologna of Green Lion Partners, a strategic development firm for the cannabis industry. “Nearly three years later, the state is still experiencing growth — the last three months are the highest retail sales on record to date — but the rate of growth is beginning to slow, but as it does it also becomes more predictable.”

Some of this stabilization is due to the regulatory frameworks designed to slow and control growth, like Denver’s moratorium on new licenses or stringent limitations on new businesses in Boulder. [Read More ( ]

** How to Incorporate Cannabis into Traditional Jewish Food for Rosh Hashanah (

The evening of Oct. 2 marks the start of Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish New Year. Like most Jewish holidays, it is celebrated with a festive meal full of traditional, delicious food. While cannabis is not a customary ingredient used in most Rosh Hashanah meals, it is something that could bring some new flavor and feeling ( to your holiday table.

To help you prepare the highest High Holiday meal ever, MERRY JANE spoke with cannabis chef JeffThe420Chef ( , who’s been hosting “Pot Shabbats”—cannabis-centered Sabbath meals—for a while now. He even included many traditional Jewish recipes with cannabis twists in his recently released cookbook, The 420 Gourmet: The Elevated Art of Cannabis Cuisine ( .

“Cannabis use dates back to when we were in Egypt,” says Jeff of the relationship between Jewish people and the plant. “Ancient Pharaohs were buried with cannabis in the pyramids! It’s also kosher!”

For those of you planning on serving a highly special High Holiday meal this Rosh Hashanah, Jeff offers these tips:

** Use a simple replacement.

One of the easiest ways to incorporate the ancient herb into your holiday meal is with apples and honey. Jewish people traditionally dip slices of apples into honey to encourage a sweet new year. Buy some cannabis-infused honey and you’ll take this tradition to the next level.

** Focus on effect.

As far as cooking and what type of cannabis to use, Jeff is less concerned with strain than with effect. “Make sure to find a good, uplifting strain ( ,” he says. It’s a celebration, after all. You don’t want to bring the party crashing down.

** Make it all about the food.

If you’re cooking with cannabis, your guests shouldn’t also be smoking or drinking in abundance. You don’t want people to “cross-fade.”

** Keep it cool.

If you’re cooking or baking, never go above 340 degrees ( . Anything above that will start to burn off both the THC and CBD. Brisket is perfect for this because the best way to cook it is low and slow.

** Dose properly and inform everyone.

Whenever you cook with cannabis ( , you should make sure to not only let guests know which dishes have cannabis in them, but also how much is in each serving. The standard edibles dose ( is 10mg. You want to prepare your recipes so you know approximately how many milligrams of cannabis there are per serving. Jeff details these amounts next to each recipe in his cookbook ( , and he also has an incredibly helpful cannabis calculator ( on his website that you can use.

** Always create a virgin option.

While it might be tempting to have an entire meal laden with cannabis, reality dictates that too much of any edible is not a good thing. So, if you’re making Jeff's“Potzo Ball Soup” ( recipe, make sure to also have a batch of non-cannabis-infused matzah balls ready to go. This allows guests to medicate and enjoy the meal at their own pace.

** GW Pharmaceutical Gets Closer To Forcing FDA On Cannabis (

British biotech company GW Pharmaceuticals ( announced positive results on its latest Phase 3 clinical trial for its drug Epidiolex. The drug is cannabidiol-based and is used to treat children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a rare form of childhood epilepsy.

The results from the test were very positive. Patients taking 20mg of Epidiolex saw their seizures on average drop 42% compared to a drop of 17% in patients taking a placebo. Patients taking 10mg of Epidiolex experienced a 37% drop in seizures versus the 17% drop in the placebo group.

The next step for GW Pharmaceuticals is to seek approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or FDA for approval. The company said it expects to submit a New Drug Application with the FDA in the first half of 2017. If approved, it would be the first plant-derived cannabinoid drug in the U.S. to be approved. After the FDA approves a new drug application, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) legally must reschedule within 90 days (per the Improving Regulatory Transparency for New Medical Therapies Act ( ). So, Epidiolex would be rescheduled by DEA within 90 days, but overall marijuana would not be rescheduled.

GW Pharmaceuticals is quick to point out that Epidiolex is not marijuana. Epidiolex is an oral pharmaceutical formulation of cannabidiol, one of many cannabinoids found in the cannabis sativa plant. CBD is a non-psychoactive component of the cannabis plant.GW Pharmaceuticals does not want its product to be confused with medical marijuana.

Having said that, this further complicates the rescheduling argument. How could the DEA declare Epidiolex, cannabinoid drug a medicine, but then still insist marijuana has no medicinal benefits? Of course, they do that now because the U.S. government has medical patents on marijuana and still declare it has no medicinal qualities.

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Marijuana Legalization 2016 Ballot: Which States Are Voting On Cannabis Laws On Election Day?

Cannabulletin: Your source for Aggregated Cannabis News View this email in your browser ( 09/26/2016

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** Marijuana Legalization 2016 Ballot: Which States Are Voting On Cannabis Laws On Election Day? (

More than 82 million U.S. residents will have the chance to cast ballots on marijuana measures when they go to vote for president come Election Day in November. Marijuana laws – whether it be to legalize or decriminalize – have been added to the ballot in nine states. Here's everything you need to know about the marijuana proposals voters will decide on come Nov. 8.

Arizona – Under the guidelines of Proposition 205 ( , or Arizona’s Marijuana Legalization Initiative, adults 21 and up would be allowed to possess and recreationally use one ounce or less of marijuana. Marijuana advocates would also be allowed to grow up to six plants in their home under the law. Arizona already permits the use of medical marijuana.

Arkansas – The Natural State is set to vote on two marijuana measures: Arkansas Issue 7 Medical Cannabis Statute ( and Arkansas Medical Marijuana Issue 6 ( . If the majority of residents vote “yes” for Issue 6, then medical marijuana will be legal and a dispensary and cultivation license fees will receive a cap. Patient card fees would not have a limit. A Medical Marijuana Commission would also be established and sales taxes would be spread across three funds.

The law would also require the Arkansas Department of Health to create rules for patient cards, marijuana producers and sellers. Lastly, the department would be responsible for determining the qualifications of medical conditions.

California – Medical cannabis has been legal in California since 1996. Proposition 64 ( , also called the Adult Use of Marijuana Act, would legalize recreational weed and hemp for people 21 and older. The law mandates a cultivation tax on flowers and leaves, as well as a 15 percent retail tax on marijuana.

Florida – Amendment 2 ( legalizes medical marijuana for patients suffering from specific debilitating diseases including cancer, epilepsy, glaucoma, HIV, AIDS, PTSD, ALS, Crohn’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis. It the measure passes, licensed state physicians would be able to prescribe medical marijuana to those suffering from comparable debilitating conditions. This is the second time Amendment 2 popped up on the Florida ballot. The state voted against a similar measure back in 2014.

Maine – Question 1 (2016) ( would legalize recreational use of marijuana throughout the state, which has allowed legal medical marijuana since 1999. Should the majority of voters check “yes” for Maine Marijuana Legalization, adults 21 and up will be allowed to use and possess cannabis. The state’s Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry would regulate retail stores, and a 10 percent tax will be placed on all marijuana sales.

Massachusetts – Question 4 ( would fully legalize marijuana with regulations similar to the state’s approach to alcoholic beverages. Massachusetts allows medical marijuana.

Montana – Montana Medical Marijuana Initiative I-182 ( is an amendment to the already-passed Montana Medical Marijuana Act. Should the new measure pass, the current medical marijuana laws will be adjusted to allow more patients access to medical marijuana. The law would also permit providers to hire workers to cultivate, dispense and transport medical marijuana to patients.

Nevada – People 21 and older would be able to possess and use up to one ounce of marijuana for recreational purposes under Nevada’s Question 2 ( .

North Dakota – Initiated Statutory Measure 5 ( gives patients suffering from cancer, AIDS, Hepatitis C, ALS, and glaucoma and epilepsy access to medical marijuana with a specific identification card. Called the North Dakota Compassionate Care Act, the amendment would also institute specific procedures and regulations for growing and dispensing medical marijuana.

** Blockchain Startups Want to Solve Cannabis' Banking Problem (

Industry insiders estimate approximately 15% of cannabis businesses have a bank account with a traditional financial institution, while most others operate with the risk ( of running an all cash business. Entrepreneur’s in distributed finance contend there’s another option.

“The blockchain’s ledger is a great communication tool for regulators,” Tokken ( founder, and former regulator, Lamine Zarrad told MERRY JANE. “If we can transfer the cash flow to an electronic format, you eliminate most the risk of money laundering.”

Tokken, a “blockchain agnostic” startup whose executives have decades of experience working in government, uses cutting edge technologies to usher in an era of distributed and digital payments in the cannabis industry.

Tokken’s core business is providing sustainable and transparent solutions in the cannabis industry using blockchain technology. Working with companies like Blockscore and Tierion, Tokken believes blockchain technology will allow the cannabis industry to flourish.

A former San Francisco dispensary, Trees, recently pivoted towards becoming a payment processor. Founder Hayner dubbed this project, MetalPay. Trees made headlines last year when it announced it’d like to deliver marijuana by drone.

Once having offered a luxurious cannabis kit including vaporizers, dabs and other medical cannabis products with Trees, Hayner's MetalPay ( is now part of the Gateway Incubator in Oakland, where the startup further develops the business model. He believes Bitcoin is exactly what the cannabis industry needs.

“There is going to be a change in the banking industry,” Hayner told MERRY JANE. “It’s hard for banks and consumer behavior to change overnight. And, cannabis is still a gray market without banking partners and processing partners. So, the technology to solve this problem is quietly growing in the background. You won’t need to have a bank account.” You can be your own bank, and you can hedge crypto-currencies through the US dollar or Chinese Yen, Hayner adds.

CHEX ( wants to create a formal exchange for cannabis related products, including ticker symbols representing a specific cannabis commodity. “Processors of cannabis infused products, such as edibles, could use more commodity sourcing options, for sourcing commodities like flower, trim, oil, and dispensaries as wholesale buyers could use more options and suppliers of their product,” Eugene Lopin, CHEX co-founder, told MERRY JANE. An exchange would go a long way towards promoting regulatory compliance in the cannabis industry, Lopin reasons.

Could Cannabis’ Young CEO’s Adopt Bitcoin?

Cannabis CEO’s are young. They might be more inclined to adopt a cutting edge payments technology like Bitcoin than their older counterparts. The two industries have yet to embrace each other.

“The bitcoin community is apprehensive in extending its services or creating affiliations with cannabis, because bitcoiners don’t want to be predominantly stereotyped by the Silk Road,” Zarrad, a former regulator within the Treasury Department, told MERRY JANE, referencing the darknet marketplace where cannabis traded hands over bitcoin while oft using public mail services. "And the cannabis industry feels the same way about associating itself with bitcoin."

** How Does Cannabis Affect Your Memory? (

Dude, where’s my car? Cheech & Chong. Jeff Spicoli. Harold & Kumar. Popular culture is littered with references to lovable – yet, usually forgetful – “stoners.” Cannabis and poor memory seem to go hand in hand, right? But, what does the science really say about cannabis and its effect on the ability to remember?

To better understand how cannabis affects memory, it’s important to first recognize that memory is not a construct that can be easily measured. Why? There are many different types of memory, each of which we test in different ways. Secondly, there are acute, or short-term, effects on memory (e.g., while under the influence), and possible long-term effects. And, finally, dosing, frequency, and strains play a big role in how cannabis affects memory.

What are the Short-Term Effects of Cannabis on Memory?

THC, the primary constituent in cannabis that gives users a euphoric effect, appears to impair memory in two significant ways: 1. Difficulty encoding memories: While cannabis users don’t experience “blackouts” like drinkers do after a big binge, it’s more difficult to form new memories while under the influence. 2. Short-term recall difficulties: Recalling events while high, and often for a period after the high wears off, can be a challenge.

Interestingly, studies show that frequent cannabis users may develop a tolerance to these effects ( . In other words, they become less sensitive to these effects and have less difficulty encoding memories or recalling events after use.

The good news is that in most consumers, memory impairments appear to be temporary. One study ( found that THC significantly impaired recall two hours after consumption, but no residual effects persisted after 24 to 48 hours. Also,cannabis doesn’t appear to affect one’s ability to recall existing memories ( . For example, even if you’re really stoned, you’re unlikely to forget your birth date, where you live, or what school you graduated from.

What are the Long-Term Effects of Cannabis on Memory?

Higher doses of cannabis taken frequently can have an adverse effect on long-term memory. In one study published by JAMA Internal Medicine,researchers concluded ( that people who consume a lot of cannabis over a long period of time (five or more years) developed poorer verbal memory recall than people who consumed less or not at all.

But how much was their memory impacted?

Reto Auer, a professor at the University of Lausanne in Switzerland and the study’s main author, said they looked at nearly 3,400 Americans over a 25-year period. Testing verbal recall, they found that users who smoked every day could, on average, recall 8.5 out of every 15 words. In contrast, those who smoked much less or didn’t consume at all could recall 9 out of every 15 words.

While the difference of half a word doesn’t seem like much, Auer suggested that the longer one consumed chronically, the worse their memory might get. But, of those who participated in the study, only 8 percent considered themselves frequent users.

Notably, they didn’t find that heavy users had other adversely impacted cognitive abilities, such as focus and processing speed.

Can Cannabis Protect Memory?

Some studies suggest that higher levels of CBD ( – a non-psychoactive cannabis constituent – may offset THC’s memory impairment ( . Better yet, CBD ( may have therapeutic potential ( to reverse or prevent certain cognitive impairments.

Early research shows that CBD could protect against brain damage caused by binge drinking or alcohol abuse. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) reported that CBD reduced alcohol-induced cell death in the brain ( by up to 60 percent.

Other studies have shown that CBD could act as a neuroprotectant and help prevent the onset of diseases like Parkinson’s, dementia, or Alzheimer’s ( .

Cannabis May Help Fight Bad Memories

Generally, we don’t think of memory impairment as a good thing. However, when it comes to individuals with PTSD ( , it’s a different story. One of PTSD’s defining symptoms is the inability of sufferers to extinguish memories from the traumatic event (or events) that caused the PTSD such as abuse, sexual assault, or combat.

Veterans regularly complain ( that pharmaceutical treatments prescribed to them by doctors – such as the highly addictive anti-anxiety medications Xanax and Valium – don’t work well and sometimes worsen symptoms.

Many veterans turn to cannabis claiming it’s the only thing that works;preclinical research shows ( that THC and CBD can “disrupt the reconsolidation of negative memories.” Translation: as Dr. Mike Hart from Marijuana for Trauma ( explains, “Cannabis helps people forget painful and intrusive memories.”

Further Research is Needed

We’re just beginning to understand how cannabis use affects the brain and memory, but encouragingly, it seems the adverse effects are exaggerated. Yes, cannabis can make you forgetful while using (or shortly thereafter). And, yes, it can have a modest impact on verbal recall in chronic, long-term users. But, in most people, after a short period of abstinence, memory function returns to normal.

Moreover, we are discovering potential therapeutic benefits. Of course, the old cop-out rings true: further research is needed, especially when it comes to studying cannabis to treat disorders like PTSD, or to prevent conditions such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and dementia that affect millions of people. However, we can hope that as public opinion shifts, the federal government will follow suit and ease restrictions that enable scientists to take research out of the lab and conduct more clinical studies on human subjects.

** Do You Know These Stoner Superstitions About Cannabis Rules and Etiquette? (

For thousands of years, plants have been used in primitive worship, creating a tradition of lore and superstition. In perpetual awe of the supernatural environment growing around them, ancient cultures intrinsically linked the euphoric and invigorating effects of plants to their own human spirituality and medicine. Similar to tobacco, cannabis has always held its own mythology. Even Jesus himself was said to pack strong anointing oil with cannabis extract called kaneh-bosem when he performed healing miracles. Today cannabis consumers continue these inherited practices. Good or bad, here’s a list of common and not-so-common cannabis superstitions many enthusiasts have believed and continue to abide by lest they want to be cursed with bad luck (or, worse yet, bad bud). Take two hits at most and pass it on. That’s it. Smoking or vaping cannabis with your friends and/or family is not the time to be selfish. The first puff is polite, the second shows you really enjoy the herb, but a third puff means you’re a glutton and don’t respect the cannabis; therefore, you’re susceptible to bad luck. Sharing is caring, and there’s been plenty of warning in contemporary western culture about this cannabis smoking ritual.

The cannabis smoker’s circle is sacrilegious and should always start to the left, meaning whoever lights the joint or starts the bowl must pass to the left or face horrible hardship. This superstition to pass to the left may have been started by American hippies in the 1960’s because most Deadheads continue to honor the tradition today.

However, another motive could stem from the Victorian-era butler service in which butlers notably present a platter of food choices from the left of their master or guest. Also known as silver service, food is always served to the left to make guests feel less crowded by someone hanging over them with both arms suddenly coming at them left and right.

Pass to the right and be condemned or mocked by the elite old school cannabis club. It’s bad etiquette and is known to bring disruptive energy into the circle.

Whether you’re packing a pipe or loading bong loads for a few smokers, never hit the bowl first. Be the host with the most. Be gracious.

This attitude of gift giving is not new; it’s reflected in many cultures. The Japanese are known for giving presents to their guests and business associates. Never be a tightwad when it comes to your cannabis community, or you’ll be labeled a hoarder and find yourself in a smoking circle where the bowl turns ash before it even gets to you.

No surprise to most cannabis heads, 420 is the magical “meeting of the minds” number, the communal worldwide time to smoke out. As the saying goes, “it’s 420 somewhere!”

The myth behind 420 ( is attributed to a Northern California police code for marijuana smoking in progress, which dates back to the 1970’s, but the actual origin ( comes from a group of high school students in Northern California who would meet at 4:20 to smoke up and search for a fabled lost cannabis grow.

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Colorado Springs orders 9 cannabis clubs to “cease and desist”

Cannabulletin: Your primary source for Cannabis News View this email in your browser ( 09/21/2016

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** Colorado Springs orders 9 cannabis clubs to “cease and desist” (

Nine Colorado Springs cannabis consumption clubs received cease-and-desist letters from the City Clerk’s Office last week in the first crackdown under a ban on the clubs enacted by the City Council on March 22.

The clubs sprang up after Amendment 64 was passed in 2012 legalizing adult use and sales of recreational marijuana but banning public consumption. The clubs gave people a place to use cannabis and socialize in private.

Colorado Springs outlawed sales of recreational marijuana in the city, but the clubs got around the ban by providing pot to their patrons on a “reimbursement model:” they could either “trade” cannabis for memberships or sign affidavits saying the club was growing the customer’s legally allowed six marijuana plants for them. Although city officials view such actions as de facto sales, the practice has continued. The ban passed in March, however, says the clubs cannot sell, trade, give, distribute or allow the transfer of marijuana.

The ban gave clubs that existed before Sept. 23, 2015, eight years to phase out their businesses, an effort to help the owners protect their investment. But under the law, every owner had to submit a consumption club application and $200 fee by April 29 to get a one-year renewable license for $90 plus registration fees. Only five clubs applied by the deadline. One was approved, two are under consideration and two were denied.

The denied clubs, along with seven other identified clubs that did not apply for licensing, have been ordered to close because they are not licensed, as required.

** 4 Ways the Fundamentals of Yoga Is Linked with Cannabis (

BALTIMORE, Md. (WJZ)– A Maryland company is taking legal action against the state’s cannabis commission, claiming they were robbed of their right to become one of the state’s first licensed medical marijuana companies.

GTI Maryland is accusing the commission of illegally taking them off the list of 15 companies that had initially been approved for growing licenses. Now they’re demanding answers.

WJZ reached out to the cannabis commission and they told WJZ they can’t comment on pending litigation.

The lawsuit filed in Baltimore City circuit court demands GTI’s place in the top 15 to be restored immediately. The company is now fighting to fix what they’re calling an injustice to patients.

“When it comes to helping those who suffer and our in need, there is only one thing to do: the right thing. That was not done here,” said Sterling Crockett of GTI Maryland.

The claims from GTI Maryland leaders come as the company prepares for a legal battle against the state’s cannabis commission.

The lawsuit was filed after GTI and another company went from the top of a list of companies on track to be awarded the state’s first growing licenses, to out of the running completely.

Traded out for companies in Prince George’s County and the Eastern Shore for what the commission calls “geographical diversity.”

The lawsuit calls the process illogical, opaque, and fatally flawed.

“You don’t change the rules after the game has been played, yet that is what’s happening here,” said former Baltimore Ravens player and investor Eugene Monroe.

The lawsuit is the latest in a series of controversial discussions since the state legalized medical marijuana in 2013. Most recently claims of a lack of diversity out of the 15 growers and 15 processors pre-approved for licenses this year.

Members of the Black Caucus are calling on the governor to step in.

“The push is to get this resolved before the session starts,” said a member of the Black Caucus.

The company tells WJZ they’re demanding answers to find out what led members of the commission to change their minds.

“The real victims here, first and foremost are the patients of Maryland,” said Pete Kadens of GTI Maryland.

** 4 Ways the Fundamentals of Yoga Is Linked with Cannabis (

It’s no secret that yoga and cannabis often work in tandem. In Colorado, Washington and Oregon, the states where cannabis is legal (along with some medical marijuana states like California), yoga studios are ramping up ganja-friendly classes. Colorado yoga teacher and cannabis advocate ( Rachael Carlevale recently opened a yoga business called Ganjasana ( that uses yoga to tap into what she says are innate connections humans share with the cannabis plant. (Rachael is a founding member of the feminist cannabis and psychedelics education and advocacy network Cosmic Sister, started by activist Zoe Helene who is featured in this AlterNet article ( ). In Portland, Oregon and surrounding areas there are yoga-cannabis wellness meetup groups ( , and anumber of studios offer pot-friendly classes ( as detailed in Willamette Weekly. Seattle, Washington's yoga and sound bath, which pairs yoga, cannabis and musical vibrations, is a local favorite according to The Stranger ( —and there are plenty more examples.

While the pairing of the two age-old healing methodologies is on the rise, it’s by no means a new trend. Yoga and cannabis were intertwined in antiquity.

In India, the birthplace of yoga, the sacred status of the cannabis plant, or ganja/hashish was revered and celebrated as an integral part of culture for millennia. Then In 1961, despite significant opposition from India, the U.S. pressured India and other nations to sign an international narcotics treaty banning cannabis as a dangerous drug at the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs in New York. This was part of the disastrous, decades-long U.S.-led global war on drugs ( , which demonized cannabis ( beginning in the 1950s. At long last, just this decade, the herb’s status as a medicine is beginning to reemerge. With its gradual re-legalization in the U.S. and elsewhere, the public is relearning about its potential to help children ( with epilepsy, shrink cancerous tumors ( , alleviate chronic pain ( (more safely and successfully than opiates), and provide feelings of relaxation and bliss in a much safer ( way than alcohol.

Even as cannabis was legally banned for public use in India, a number of yogic sects continue to use the herb.

[Read More ( ]

** Cannabis and Migraines: A Possible New Treatment Option? (

Cannabis as a medicine has an ancient history with anecdotes dating back to the Vedic period (c.1500 BCE) in India and Nepal. It wasn’t until 1839 that William Brooke O’Shaughnessy introduced the therapeutic potential of cannabis to the western hemisphere, and another 75 years after that until Sir William Osler, the father of modern medicine, proposed its use for the treatment of migraines and headaches ( . The criminalization of cannabis has since hindered our ability to research its potential; to-date, much of what we understand is largely anecdotal or based on animal or tissue culture experiments.

However, as countries legalize cannabis and as public opinion changes, cannabis research will flourish. What we already know of its ability to treat migraines and headaches is promising.

A migraine is a complex condition with a number of symptoms including the following: * Painful headaches * Disturbed vision * Sensitivity to light (photophobia) and sound (phonophobia) * Nausea and vomiting * Disorientation * Problems with coordination

These symptoms can last several hours to several days, and in severe cases reversible paralysis or loss of consciousness can occur. Migraines are triggered by a variety of internal (somatic, physiological) and external (chemical, environmental) variables. People who get migraines are thought to have a genetic predisposition toward having abnormal cells in the brain stem.

What Causes Migraines?

Evidence suggests that migraines are the result of a variety of triggers interacting with a dysfunctional brain stem center involved in pain regulation. These triggers activate the trigeminovascular system (neurons in the trigeminal nerve that supply cerebral blood vessels with nerves), and consequently the dilation of cerebral blood vessels, which in turn activate brain circuits associated with pain and inflammation.

Anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) are endogenous cannabinoids ( naturally found in the nervous system that, together with cannabinoid receptors, form the endocannabinoid system ( (ECS). When anandamide ( and 2-AG interact with cannabinoid receptors, they inhibit blood vessel dilation and modulate the pain mechanisms activated by an individual’s triggers (e.g. changes in atmospheric pressure, chocolate, or caffeine).

** What are the Current Migraine Treatment Options?

Migraines are treated with a variety of acute (onset of an attack) and prophylactic or preventative medications. The frequency and severity of a migraine, as well as the lifestyle and constitution of an individual, are all factors to consider when choosing the proper medication.

Examples of acute medications for pain relief (analgesics) include acetaminophen, opioids,triptans ( , glucocorticoids (steroid hormones), and ergots ( . In general, preventative medications include a variety of cardiovascular drugs (beta and calcium channel blockers), anti-depressants, anti-convulsants, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Side effects of these medications might include nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, and muscle weakness.

Can Cannabis be Used as Migraine Treatment and Prevention?

Pain management ( is the best known medical benefit of cannabis, most notably of the cannabinoid CBD ( , which is thought to have analgesic properties that may help reduce a patient’s dependence prescription opiates ( as well as manage a host of negative side effects. Patients also use cannabis to help them sleep ( , stimulate their appetite ( , and manage mood and anxiety ( levels.

Migraine sufferers can experience debilitating pain, nausea, and vomiting. These symptoms are potentially manageable with cannabis due to the anti-emetic (vomit and nausea-preventing), anti-inflammatory, and pain-relieving properties associated with specific cannabinoids, including THC and CBD.

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11 Amazing Ways Cannabis Can Prevent Illness

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Most people are familiar with the healing potential of medical cannabis for people who are already ill. In states where its medicinal use has been legalized, cannabis is prescribed to help with things like relieving the side effects of chemo, reducing chronic pain, and treating anxiety. Some even go as far as to say they’ve cured themselves from cancer or turned around autoimmune diseases.

But what if taking small amounts of cannabis on a regular basis, as if it were just another health supplement, could actually prevent illnesses before they happen? Sounds far fetched, right? But studies show that it might just be true.

Endocannabinoid System Keeps Us in Balance

The reason cannabis is effective for so many conditions is because it interacts with a physiological system called the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) — a complex network of receptors that acts like a dimmer switch to all other activity in the body. This means when there is too much or too little activity going on somewhere, the ECS kicks in and brings it back into equilibrium. Our bodies are filled with ECS receptors that are perfect fits both for our own natural chemicals called endocannabinoids and also for the ones coming from plants such as cannabis.
If our ECS is weakened and not functioning properly, introducing plant cannabinoids into our system gives it a helping hand to get on with the job of keeping our system functioning optimally. So if we are in balance, we are less likely to develop disease.
Let’s take a look at some more specific ways that cannabis could prevent us from getting sick.
1. Reducing Chronic Inflammation Lessens Our Chances of Getting Age Related Illnesses
2. A Powerful Antioxidant
3. A Healthy Endocannabinoid System Means a Healthy You
4. CBD Reduces Chronic Anxiety
5. Regulates Blood Sugar Levels
6. Now for the Controversial One — Prevent Cancer?
7. Youthful Skin
8. Protect Your Joints
9. Strengthen Those Bones
10. Reduce Hardcore Prescription Meds
11. Protect Your Brain

[Read the Full Article]



UK Parliament Members Conclude That Medical Cannabis Should Be Legalized -
Merry Jane

Members of the UK Parliament are warming up to the idea of legalizing medical cannabis use after latest government inquiry.

Similar to the budding relationship between medical cannabis and social acceptance in the United States, the United Kingdom also seems to be on the brink of legalizing the medicinal use of marijuana on a national level. 

The much-needed discussion has been reinvigorated in Parliament after members of All-Party Parliamentary Group on Drug Reform released a report claiming that the current refusal to acknowledge the medicinal value of cannabis is “irrational”. The report also called for an end to the unjust criminalization of hundreds of thousands citizens that use cannabis for pain relief. 

The chair of this progressive group, Lady Meacher, used the recent medical legalization efforts in the US and throughout the world as evidence that the time has come to do the same throughout the UK.  “The findings of our inquiry and review of evidence from across the world are clear. Cannabis works as a medicine for a number of medical conditions. The evidence has been strong enough to persuade a growing number of countries and US states to legalize access to medical cannabis,” she said. 

The group’s inquiry examined evidence from 623 patients, medical professionals, and leaders who have spearheaded legal regulation of medical marijuana in other countries. Additionally, they also commissioned the expertise of neurologist Professor Mike Barnes, who concluded in his own report that cannabis helps alleviate a wide range medical conditions, and that list will likely grow once medical cannabis research becomes unchained by the government.       

“We analysed over 20,000 scientific and medical reports. The results are clear. Cannabis has a medical benefit for a wide range of conditions. I believe that with greater research, it has the potential to help with an even greater number of conditions. But this research is being stifled by the Government’s current classification of cannabis as having no medical benefit,” said Professor Barnes. 

It’s about time that the UK Parliament caught up to the wishes of the public they represent. According to a survey conducted by the pro-medical cannabis campaign group End Our Pain, 68% of UK citizens support doctors being allowed to prescribe cannabis to patients. Now, with Parliament Members claiming that the current restrictions over cannabis are “irrational”, the UK seems bound to legalize the medical use of cannabis any day now.



Port Richey Becomes Latest Florida City to Pass a Cannabis Decrim Ordinance

A city-wide ordinance that will establish an $155 civil infraction for the possession of up to 20 grams of cannabis has been passed by the Port Richey, Florida City Council. The 3 to 2 vote makes Port Richey the first city in Pasco County to pass a cannabis decriminalization ordinance.

Under the new law, police will have the option of issuing an $155 civil citation (ticket) for those caught possessing up to 20 grams of cannabis, rather than arresting them and charging them with a misdemeanor as current law mandates (the misdemeanor carries a punishment of up to a year in jail and/or a maximum fine of up to $1,000).

“That was easier than I thought it was going to be,” Mayor Dale Massad, a supporter of the proposal, said with a smile on his face following the Council’s vote.

The lobbying effort behind the measure was led by Garyn Angel, owner of Magical Butter, a machine designed to easily make cannabis butter, in addition to other things.

The law is essentially identical to ordinances recently passed in Miami-Dade, Florida’s largest county, as well as Broward County, Palm Beach County, Volusia County, Key West, West Palm Beach, Hallandale Beach, Orlando and Tampa.

The vote comes less than two months before voters Florida vote on Amendment 2, which would legalize the medical use of cannabis, including establishing a system of regulated medical cannabis dispensaries and cultivation centers.

Port Richey is a small town with a population of roughly 2,600 residents according to the most recent Census Bureau report.



Oregon Cannabis Industry Facing Regulatory Uncertainty

The Oregon Cannabis Industry is facing both double regulations, and regulatory Uncertainty. While seed-to-sale regulations are becoming the accepted norm in all states which have decriminalized cannabis, the situation in Oregon presents new challenges for industry dispensaries and growers.

That’s because Oregon is regulated by two separate agencies that have control over seed-to-sale and the traceability and packaging of cannabis: the Oregon Liquor Control Commission (OLCC) that oversees recreational sales and the Oregon Health Authority (OHA) that overseas medicinal products.

The reason for the two oversight agencies has to do with timing: recreation was approved first October 2015 when the Oregon Liquor Control Commission approved a set of extensive regulations designed to create a viable, profitable and accountable recreational marijuana industry. The first licensed recreational dispensaries are expected to open in December 2016, while, medicinal products were approved by the Oregon Medical Marijuana Act in November 1998.

To accommodate both medical and recreational dispensaries, Oregon regulators had to make some innovative changes that allowed licensed medical marijuana stores to continue to sell recreational marijuana products, but only until Dec. 31, 2015. Then, on Jan. 1, 2017, medical stores will no longer be able to conduct recreational sales since the new recreational dispensaries will be open for business.

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Maker of deadly painkillers is bankrolling the opposition to legal marijuana in Arizona

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** Maker of deadly painkillers is bankrolling the opposition to legal marijuana in Arizona ( -

The Washington Post

The campaign against marijuana legalization in Arizona received a major infusion of cash last week from a synthetic cannabis drugmaker that has been investigated for alleged improper marketing of a highly addictive prescription painkiller, according to campaign finance reports ( .

The $500,000 donation from Insys Therapeutics ( , based in Chandler, Ariz., amounts to more than one-third of all money raised by Arizonans for Responsible Drug Policy ( , the group opposing legalization. It's one of the largest single contributions to any anti-legalization campaign ever, according to campaign finance records ( maintained by

** Cannabis Industry Expected to Be Worth $50 Billion by 2026 ( - Bloomberg News

The legal cannabis industry in the U.S. may grow to $50 billion in the next decade, expanding to more than eight times its current size, as lawful pot purveyors gain new customers and win over users from the illicit market, according to a new report.

Legalizing recreational use in California, where the drug is already medically permitted, is on the ballot in November, and approval of that measure alone would triple the size of the nation’s current $6 billion legal industry, according to a report from 10 Cowen & Co. analysts released on Monday. In all, voters in nine states will vote on weed-related initiatives this November -- five to legalize the drug for all adults and four to allow for medical use.

Pot already is legal for recreational use in Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, Washington and the District of Columbia, and is medically permitted in 25 states. Cowen’s forecast assumes federal legalization of the drug, a measure that has more than 50 percent popular support.

“Cannabis prohibition has been in place for 80-plus years, but the tides are clearly turning,” the analysts said.

** California's history with recreational marijuana — and why this time may be different (

On Nov. 8, California voters will have the opportunity to legalize recreational use of marijuana. It won't be the first time.

We've put together a timeline of the Golden State's history with cannabis, which stretches back more than a century to the Poison Act of 1907.

1913: Addendum to the Poison Act

California became the first state to prohibit marijuana in an addendum to the Poison Act of 1907. The Poison Act made it illegal to sell or use cocaine or opiates such as opium and morphine without a prescription. In 1913, the law was amended to include cannabis.

1937: The Marihuana Tax Act

This federal act prohibited cannabis in the United States except for industrial and medicinal uses.

Following the Mexican Revolution in 1910, many Mexicans immigrated to the U.S., prompting an outcry about the effects of immigration. Anti-Mexican sentiment surfaced in public fears of “marihuana,” which some believed came across the border with the immigrants and turned users into raging violent lunatics.

The Marihuana Tax Act had other contributing causes, including William Randolph Hearst’s campaign against hemp as an alternative to using wood pulp for paper and reports from the Federal Bureau of Narcotics about the dangers of cannabis smoking.

1970: Controlled Substances Act

This act repealed the Marihuana Tax Act and replaced it with a more stringent anti-drug law that outlawed many narcotics, including cannabis.

The previous year, a report by the Field Poll — an independent nonpartisan statewide public opinion survey — found that only 3% of state residents ( supported complete marijuana legalization. Another 10% felt it should be legalized but treated similarly to alcohol, including limiting it to consumers by age.

1972: Proposition 19, marijuana legalization

Proposition 19 marked the first time California tried to independently legalize pot. The measure would have decriminalized marijuana possession and cultivation for people 18 and older, and was championed by Bay Area attorney Leo Paoli.

The final vote was 33.5% for and 66.5% against.

1975: California Senate Bill 95

Moscone introduced this bill in Sacramento in response to his committee’s study, which found that 90% of marijuana arrests were for simple possession and were costing the state $100 million annually. This bill downgraded possession of an ounce or less of marijuana from a possible felony to a misdemeanor with “a traffic-style citation and a maximum fine of $100,” according to a Times article on the bill from July 10, 1975. An editorial that ran the next day called the new law “sensible and humane.”

Jerry Brown signed the bill into law during his first term as governor. The bill was considered controversial, with critics saying it effectively legalized marijuana. Brown released a statement at the time underscoring that marijuana was still illegal and that “severe penalties still remain” for possession by minors and for selling or cultivating the drug.

1996: Proposition 215, the medical marijuana initiative

With this ballot measure, California became the first state to legalize medical marijuana. Arizona passed a medical marijuana bill the same year, but the state suspended its implementation until the Food and Drug Administration approved cannabis for medical use, which essentially nullified it.

California’s proposition was one of the most significant pieces of marijuana legislation in modern history. Marijuana had been outlawed everywhere in every form for nearly 60 years.

The proposition passed with 55.58% of Californians voting for it and 44.42% against it.

2003: Senate Bill 420, the Medical Marijuana Program Act

This bill clarified a few things in the California medical marijuana law passed by voters, including the scope of the law and which government agencies were in charge of enforcing it. It also created the voluntary ID card system to identify verified medical marijuana patients.

The following year, the Field Poll found that nearly three-fourths of all state residents ( supported the existing medical marijuana legislation.

2010: Senate Bill 1449

Just before leaving office, Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger signed a bill ( that downgraded possession of up to an ounce of marijuana from a misdemeanor to an infraction — the same as a traffic violation.

"In this time of drastic budget cuts, prosecutors, defense attorneys, law enforcement, and the courts cannot afford to expend limited resources prosecuting a crime that carries the same punishment as a traffic ticket,” he said in a statement that accompanied the signing.

2010: Proposition 19, the marijuana legalization initiative

This ballot measure sought to legalize recreational marijuana for adults 21 and older.

In April of 2010, 56% of poll respondents said they were in favor of the initiative. But that number dropped steadily leading up to the election. Ultimately, the final vote was 53.5% against and 46.5% for.

2012: Marijuana is legalized for recreational use in two states — but not California

In 2012, Colorado and Washington voters elected to legalize marijuana for recreational purposes. Since then, state legislators across the country have been keeping an eye on what this has meant for crime rates, drug use and new taxes.

The following year, the Field Poll found that 55% of Californians ( supported marijuana legalization.

2015: The Bureau of Medical Marijuana Regulation is established

Last year, California lawmakers sent a slate of bills to Brown’s desk to create new statewide medical marijuana regulations. The Bureau of Medical Marijuana Regulation was created to dictate how cannabis is grown and sold in the state, and to set fees and licensing standards for marijuana-related businesses. Marijuana growers must also now adhere to the laws and regulations other types of farmers are subject to.

In early 2016, Brown appointed the Bureau’s first “pot czar,” Lori Ajax ( . The bills also laid the groundwork for marijuana distribution and regulation if voters choose to legalize it for recreational use.

2016: The Adult Use of Marijuana Act

This year’s shot at legalizing pot has a number of differences from the 2010 initiative.

Dale Gieringer, director of California NORML, a group dedicated to reforming the state’s marijuana laws, said a number of legalization efforts cropped up this year, but thanks to former Facebook President Sean Parker’s hefty investment ( , this is the one that rose to the top.

Gieringer said the bill’s organizers did a good job of getting key endorsements in place early from the California Medical Assn., Lt. Gov. Gavin Newsom and the California Democratic Party. The bill also very clearly lays out how taxation will work, said Gieringer, who was the author of the 1996 law that legalized medical marijuana.

** New Polling has Florida Medical Cannabis Initiative at 70% Support (

New polling released by Public Policy Polling has found that 70% of voters in Florida support Amendment 2 ( to legalize medical cannabis, with just 23% opposed; 7% remain undecided. The poll comes roughly two months before the November 8th election.

“Poll after poll has us winning this race in November and finally allowing Florida’s doctors to make the recommendations they feel are best for thousands and thousands of suffering patients in Florida”, says Ben Pollara, Campaign Manager forUnited for Care, the group behind Amendment 2. “Still, the No On 2 Campaign is doing everything it can to provoke fear and obstruct this important access. And they have a lot of money to do it.”

According to Pollara, they know from their 2014 campaign that “things can change very quickly when you’re out spent”. As such, the group is continuing to build their advertising fund to “make sure we have enough to adequately communicate the truth to undecided (or easily swayed) voters.”

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